Intervention: Intervenor 232

Document Name: 2015-134.223980.2394481.Intervention(1fbld01!).html

Please see the attached intervention.Raisons pour comparaitre / Reasons for appearanceI (along with Dr. **** Rathi) hold an ongoing Social Sciences and Humanities Research Council funded research grant investigating rural broadband policies, and as such will be able to bring new insights from the research carried out between the written intervention and the public hearing. Drs. McNally and **** have also been involved in the most recent Van **** Institute’s Digital Futures event, and may also bring additional insights from the most recent (March 2015) and any future Digital Futures events.

Intervention: Intervenor 232

Document Name: 2015-134.223980.2394480.Intervention(1fblc01!).doc
[bookmark: _GoBack]
Intervention in Response to Canadian Radio-television and Telecommunications Commission Telecom Notice of Consultation CRTC 2015-134
CRTC File No. 8663-C12-201503186
July 14, 2015
Intervention on behalf of:
**** B. McNally1
**** Rathi2
Jen Evaniew3
**** Gareau-Brennan3
1 Assistant Professor, School of Library and Information Studies, University of Alberta
2 Associate Professor, School of Library and Information Studies, University of Alberta
3 Masters of Business Administration and Masters of Library and Information Studies Candidate, University of Alberta

1. The following intervention addresses several of the questions contained in Appendix B of Canadian Radio-television and Telecommunications (CRTC) Telecom Notice of Consultation 2015-134.[footnoteRef:1] However, before addressing the specific questions, we wish to underscore that the review of basic telecommunications services be foregrounded in the Canadian Telecommunications Policy (section 7 of the Telecommunications Act[footnoteRef:2]). In particular we stress that in considering objectives 7(b) (the rendering of reliable, and affordable telecommunications services of high quality to Canadians in both urban and rural areas in all regions of Canada) and 7(h) (responding to the economic and social requirements of telecommunications services) that the Commission pay special consideration to Canadians that are disadvantaged by various digital divides, including, but not limited to, rural and remote Canadians, Canadians from lower income groups, Canadians with low or limited digital skills/literacy, linguistic minorities, and other socially and economically marginalized and disadvantaged groups. [1: Canadian Radio-television and Telecommunications Commission (CRTC). 2015. Telecom Notice of Consultation 2015-134. http://www.crtc.gc.ca/eng/archive/2015/2015-134.htm ] [2: Telecommunications Act (S.C. 1993, c. 38), s. 7. http://laws-lois.justice.gc.ca/eng/acts/t-3.4/FullText.html ] 1. Canadians are using telecommunications services to fulfill many social, economic, and cultural needs in today’s digital economy.

1a. Explain how telecommunications services are used to meet these needs. For example, uses may include e-commerce (i.e. the online purchase and trade of products or services), e-banking and/or telephone banking, e-health or telehealth services, telework, and distance education. Which of these uses of telecommunications services are the most important to ensure that Canadians meaningfully participate in the digital economy?

2. Telecommunications services are increasingly essential for meaningful participation in the digital economy, and more broadly in Canadian society. The Notice of Consultation identifies several uses of the internet (e-commerce, telehealth, distance education, telework, etc…). The 2012 Canadian Internet Use Survey demonstrates how various Canadian internet users utilize telecommunication services to meet various needs. Electronic banking is one of the most common uses of the internet with 72% of Canadians engaging in such activity.[footnoteRef:3] 56% of Canadian internet users made an online purchase, and the total value of orders placed by Canadians reached $18.9 billion.[footnoteRef:4] Over a third of Canadians (38%) used the internet for education purposes or training, and 36% of Canadians used the internet to search for employment.[footnoteRef:5] [3: Statistics Canada. 2013. “Table 3: Online Activities from Any Location, 2012.” The Daily. http://www.statcan.gc.ca/daily-quotidien/131028/t131028a003-eng.htm ] [4: Statistics Canada. 2013. “Individual Internet Use and e-Commerce, 2012.” The Daily. http://www.statcan.gc.ca/daily-quotidien/131028/dq131028a-eng.htm ] [5: Statistics Canada. “Table 3.”] 3. In addition to the uses identified in the Notice of Consultation, the Commission should also note that other uses of the internet are equally important. One key usage of the internet was obtaining government information and using online government services, which 63% of Canadians did in 2012.[footnoteRef:6] In particular the growth of social media usage by Canadians represents a key means through which individuals use the internet to meet their cultural and social needs. Over two thirds (67%) of Canadians visited social media sites in 2012.[footnoteRef:7] Nearly half (43%) of Canadians made phone calls or video calls using the internet in 2012, and more than half (54%) of Canadians downloaded or watched video clips online.[footnoteRef:8] In 2014, the International Telecommunications Union (ITU) reported that Canadians led the world in social media penetration among active internet users.[footnoteRef:9] [6: Statistics Canada. “Table 3.”] [7: Statistics Canada. “Individual Internet Use and e-Commerce, 2012.” ] [8: Statistics Canada. “Individual Internet Use and e-Commerce, 2012.”] [9: International Telecommunications Union (ITU) – Broadband Commission. 2014. The State of Broadband 2014: Broadband for All. http://www.broadbandcommission.org/documents/reports/bb-annualreport2014.pdf p. 14] 4. More broadly access to the internet also facilitates a range of information seeking. In 2012, 71% of Canadians read or watched news using the internet, and 67% of Canadians searched for health related information.[footnoteRef:10] The depth of Canadians’ use of the internet is reflected by the fact that in 2013 Canadians visited the most web pages per month and spent the second greatest average number of hours per month online in the world (41.3 hours per month).[footnoteRef:11] [10: Statistics Canada. “Table 3.”] [11: Canadian Internet Registration Authority (CIRA). 2014. 2014 CIRA Factbook. http://cira.ca/factbook/2014/the-canadian-internet.html ] 5. Educational uses of telecommunications services are a particularly important aspect of internet use, and crucial for continued Canadian competitiveness in the digital economy as well as for personal growth and facilitating lifelong learning. For on-campus and distance education students, and the utilization of open educational resources (OER) and massively open online courses (MOOC), access to broadband, especially for content rich courses which use multimedia resources (audio, video, simulation, CAD-CAM, etc.) is a pre-requisite for many courses and programs.[footnoteRef:12] Contact ****, Ontario’s Distance Education and Training Network, estimates there are “between 875,000 and 950,000 registered online students in Canada at college and universities studying a purely online course at any one time.”[footnoteRef:13] Lack of access to affordable broadband is a key barrier that impedes use of OERs.[footnoteRef:14] [12: Contact ****. 2012. Online learning in Canada: At a tipping point, a cross-country check-up 2012. http://teachonline.ca/sites/default/files/pdf/trends-and-directions/onlinelearningincanadareport_june_2012_-_final_0.pdf p. 17.] [13: Contact ****. 2012. Online learning in Canada: At a tipping point, a cross-country check-up 2012. http://teachonline.ca/sites/default/files/pdf/trends-and-directions/onlinelearningincanadareport_june_2012_-_final_0.pdf p. 14.] [14: Organisation for Economic Cooperation and Development (OECD). 2007. Giving Knowledge for Free: The Emergence of Open Educational Resources. http://www.oecd.org/edu/ceri/38654317.pdf p. 58] 6. In regards to which uses of telecommunication services are most important to ensure that Canadians meaningfully participate in the digital economy, despite most Canadians heavy use of the internet, there is no single use of telecommunication services that is superordinate above all others. While the average Canadian is a heavy internet user engaging in a range of activities, there still exists a considerable portion of the population without access to the internet. According to the Canadian Internet Registration Authority (CIRA), in 2013 Canada ranks 16th globally in terms of household internet penetration with 87% of households connected to the internet.[footnoteRef:15] [15: CIRA. 2014 CIRA Factbook. ] 7. Digital divides continue to persist in Canada putting groups already disadvantaged by geography and income at a further disadvantage by more limited access to the internet. While 95% of Canadian households in the highest income quartile have internet access, in the lowest income quartile the internet penetration rate is only 62%.[footnoteRef:16] Rural and remote Canadians are also disadvantaged. While urban broadband availability is universal (100%), only 85% of Canadians in rural areas have broadband available.[footnoteRef:17] [16: CIRA. 2014 CIRA Factbook.] [17: CIRA. 2014 CIRA Factbook.] 8. Furthermore, Canada’s relative global position in terms of broadband penetration is declining. In 2003 the OECD noted that Canada ranked second in terms of broadband subscribers per 100 inhabitants at 8.8 subscribers per 100 inhabitants.[footnoteRef:18] In 2013 Canada’s rank had fallen to 13th (with 31.7 subscribers per 100 inhabitants).[footnoteRef:19] Canada’s ranking with regard to broadband speed and cost has also declined over the past decade ranking 19th globally in 2014.[footnoteRef:20] [18: Organisation for Economic Cooperation and Development (OECD). 2003. Communication Outlook 2003. http://www.oecd-ilibrary.org/science-and-technology/oecd-communications-outlook-2003_comms_outlook-2003-en p. 122.] [19: OECD. 2013. Communication Outlook 2013. http://www.oecd-ilibrary.org/science-and-technology/oecd-communications-outlook-2013_comms_outlook-2013-en p. 129.] [20: CIRA. 2014 CIRA Factbook. ] 9. While the CRTC has set a goal of universal broadband availability in Canada for the end of 2015 with minimum speeds of 5 Mbps download and 1 Mbps upload,[footnoteRef:21] the Government of Canada’s most recent broadband program (Connecting Canadians, part of Digital Canada 150) will only increase broadband availability at these speeds to 98%[footnoteRef:22] of Canadians by 2019.[footnoteRef:23] The CRTC’s willingness to develop substantive and meaningful universal broadband speed targets reflects a key ingredient for successful national broadband policy - policy leadership. The ITU stresses that a key ingredient for successful national broadband plans is policy leadership.[footnoteRef:24] While Connecting Canadians is an important part of an overall national approach to broadband, it is insufficient on its own. The CRTC, in Telecom Regulatory Policy 2011-291 has demonstrated the policy leadership necessary to achieve universal broadband in Canada. The Commission must continue its role as a telecom policy leader in Canada. [21: CRTC. 2011. Telecom Regulatory Policy CRTC 2011-291. http://www.crtc.gc.ca/eng/archive/2011/2011-291.htm para. 76. ] [22: Industry Canada. 2014. Digital Canada 150. http://www.ic.gc.ca/eic/site/028.nsf/eng/00576.html p. 8.] [23: Government of Canada. 2014. Budget 2014 (The Road to Balance: Creating Jobs and Opportunities). http://www.budget.gc.ca/2014/docs/plan/pdf/budget2014-eng.pdf p. 179.] [24: International Telecommunications Union (ITU) – Broadband Commission. 2014. The State of Broadband 2014: Broadband for All. http://www.broadbandcommission.org/documents/reports/bb-annualreport2014.pdf p. 32-34.] 10. The need for policy leadership is particularly acute given the considerable steps other countries are making towards improving broadband access and universalizing broadband connectivity. For example, by the end of this year Finland aims for 99% of all residences to have access, within 2 kilometers, to a fibre or cable network delivering speeds of 100 Mbps, while the United States has set a goal of having 100 million households with actual (not advertised) broadband speeds of 100 Mbps by 2020.[footnoteRef:25] Korea is investing $1.5 billion (USD) to build a national 5G network allowing mobile wireless connections at the speed of 1 Gbps by 2020.[footnoteRef:26] Given the significant investment other countries are making, the CRTC should not allow Canadians to become disadvantaged in participating in the global digital economy. [25: World Bank. 2012. Broadband Strategies Handbook. Tim **** and **** Maria Rossotto (Eds.). http://elibrary.worldbank.org/doi/book/10.1596/978-0-8213-8945-4 p. 46. ] [26: Arjun Kashyap. 2014. “South Korea will Invest $1.5B on Building a 5G Network That **** be 1K Faster Than Existing Speeds and Allow 1-Second Movie Downloads.” International Business Times. http://www.ibtimes.com/south-korea-will-invest-15b-building-5g-network-will-be-1k-times-faster-existing-speeds-allow-1 ] 11. In the 2010 digital economy consultation document Improving Canada’s Digital Advantage, Industry Canada noted there is a risk that the skills gap could grow as learning, and an awareness of learning opportunities, requires digital competence and those without this competence may fall behind, recognizing “effective participation in the labour market is increasingly linked to digital competence”.[footnoteRef:27] More recently, however, digital skills development has been de-emphasized by the Government of Canada. The 2014-2015 Industry Canada Report on Plans and Priorities states that “promoting economic development in communities encourages the development of skills.”[footnoteRef:28] A similar sentiment is reflected in Digital Canada 150 where the strategy only mentions “digital skills” under the pillar of economic opportunities, not the Connecting Canadians initiative. Furthermore the strategy concludes by suggesting it is individuals’ responsibility to acquire the skills necessary for the digital economy.[footnoteRef:29]. In addition, Connecting Canadians two identifiable skills training programs are the general Canada Job **** and the two-decade old Computers for Schools Program.[footnoteRef:30] [27: Industry Canada. 2010. Improving Canada’s Digital Advantage. http://publications.gc.ca/collections/collection_2010/ic/Iu4-144-2010-eng.pdf p. 27-28, 36.] [28: Industry Canada. 2014. 2014-15 Estimates – Report on Plans and Priorities. http://www.ic.gc.ca/eic/site/017.nsf/eng/h_07421.html p. 1.] [29: Industry Canada. Digital Canada 150. p. 26.] [30: Industry Canada. Digital Canada 150. p. 15.] 12. Although the Digital Canada 150 document cites the OECD Skills Outlook 2013, stating “Canadians rank above the OECD average in terms of their ability to use digital technology, communications tools and networks”[footnoteRef:31], the OECD report notes in the same table that Canadians rank below average for numeracy and at average for literacy[footnoteRef:32], and another table identifies a positive relationship between literacy and problem solving in technology-rich environments.[footnoteRef:33] Most significantly, the survey excluded Canadian “residents of smallest communities in northern territories” and “residents of remote and very low population density areas in provinces,”[footnoteRef:34] communities that have the greatest need for digital literacy programming and training. In determining basic telecommunication services, digital literacy training/instruction must also be considered an essential element. [31: Industry Canada. Digital Canada 150. p. 5.] [32: OECD. 2013. OECD Skills Outlook 2013. http://skills.oecd.org/OECD_Skills_Outlook_2013.pdf p. 97.] [33: OECD. 2013. OECD Skills Outlook 2013. http://skills.oecd.org/OECD_Skills_Outlook_2013.pdf p. 269] [34: OECD. 2013. The Survey of Adult Skills: ****’s Companion. http://skills.oecd.org/documents/Survey_of_Adult_Skills_Readers_Companion.pdf p. 53.] 13. With regard to the use of telecommunication services it is crucial to underscore that current and future uses of such services should, to the greatest extent possible, make use of fibre to the premises (FTTP) connections. In discussing the impact of broadband infrastructure selection on economic development, **** Moll observes how “fibre infrastructure capable of supporting essential services like health, education and small businesses,” and fibre, “is the only kind of connectivity that can provide rural and remote communities with a stable economic future”.[footnoteRef:35] In a consideration of the technical superiority of fibre infrastructure, **** S. **** notes “a single optical fibre can carry 10,000 times the information that can be carried on the entire radio frequency spectrum and that when a fibre is used, the information can be dedicated to a single user [whereas] wireless suffers from limited bandwidth because the radio-frequency spectrum is necessarily shared, not dedicated. Therefore, fibre provides the ultimate future-proof solution for broadband access to fixed locations such as homes.”[footnoteRef:36] In addition, the OECD Communications Outlook notes “wireless can, of course, provide competition for some traditional and some new services, but spectrum availability will always impose limits that are not a constraint for fibre.”[footnoteRef:37] For a long-term vision, fibre infrastructure is the gold standard for internet connections. [35: **** Moll. 2011. “Fibre not Satellite for Local Economic Development.” In ****, M. & Shade, L. R. (Eds.), The Internet Tree: The State of Telecom Policy in Canada 3.0 (pp. 137-142). Ottawa: CCPA. p. 139.] [36: **** S. ****. 2010. “Broadband Facts, Fictions and Urban Myths.” Telecommunications Journal of Australia 60(3). http://www.digitalfutures.ca/wp-content/uploads/2013/10/BROADBAND-FACTS-FICTION-AND-URBAN.pdf ] [37: OECD. Communications Outlook 2013. p. 16.] 14. Particularly notable is Canada’s poor performance in terms of fibre connections. Canada ranks 20th out of 34 regions in the OECD in terms of fibre connections as a percentage of total broadband connections in 2014.[footnoteRef:38] Figure 1 (below) shows how Canada is increasingly lagging in comparison to other OECD countries in terms of fibre connectivity. [38: OECD. 2014. “Percentage of Fibre Connections in Total Broadband Connections.” http://www.oecd.org/internet/broadband/1.10-PctFibreToTotalBroadband-2014-06.xls] Figure 1. Percentage of Fibre Connections in Total Broadband Connections[footnoteRef:39] [39: OECD. “Percentage of Fibre Connections in Total Broadband Connections.” ]

The CRTC notes that FTTP connections make up only a small share (2.9%) of total residential connections in Canada. Figure 2 (below) further illustrates the lack of both fibre to the note (FTTN) and FTTP connectionsFigure 2. Percentage of Residential **** Using Fibre Optic Cables (2013)[footnoteRef:40] [40: CRTC. 2014. Communications Monitoring Report 2014. http://www.crtc.gc.ca/eng/publications/reports/PolicyMonitoring/2014/cmr.pdf p. 148] [image: ]

15. Thus while there are numerous services that Canadians may use, increasing broadband penetration (not simply availability), and in particular fibre connections, is the most important way in which Canadians can fully benefit socially, culturally and economically in the digital economy.

1b. Explain which telecommunications services are most important to support these needs and uses. What characteristics (e.g. capacity, mobility, high speed, and low latency) should these telecommunications services have?

16. With respect to which characteristics telecommunications services should have, the Telecommunications Act, s. 7(b) identifies the most important characteristics - reliability, affordability and high quality.

17. Reliability is a particular important characteristic for the CRTC to ensure. Reliability directly relates to issues of capacity and speed. Considerations regarding capacity are multilayered. Network infrastructure must support the current and growing demand for telecommunication services; however, determining the appropriate level of network capacity is complicated by variations in demand for broadband services. For example, if 800,000 residents of New **** City wanted stream a movie, the required network capacity needed is estimated to be around 1.6 terabits per second.[footnoteRef:41] Requiring ISPs to provide such capacity is unfeasible. Still the Commission should be mindful of the growing demand for streaming services in Canada. For example the CBC reported that 625,000 Canadians streamed the 2014 Olympic Men’s Hockey semi-final game on web of mobile devices.[footnoteRef:42] To compensate for the growing number of internet users and the increased usage per user, **** Alexander has suggested that network capacity has increased 300,000 percent per internet user from 2002 to 2014.[footnoteRef:43] The need for increased capacity suggests that we cannot continue to rely on legacy connection technologies (DSL and cable) and must ensure a robust fibre network across the country. [41: **** Alexander. 2014. “The Need for ****: Why Broadband Network Upgrades are Critical to Economic Growth.” Gigaom. https://gigaom.com/2014/02/15/the-need-for-speed-why-broadband-network-upgrades-are-critical-to-economic-growth/ ] [42: **** Houpt. 2014. “More than 15 Million Canadians Watched **** Medal Hockey Win over Sweden.” The **** and Mail. http://www.theglobeandmail.com/sports/olympics/more-than-15-million-canadians-watched-gold-medal-hockey-win-over-sweden/article17076958/ ] [43: ****. “The Need for ****” ] 18. A related facet of capacity is also ensuring that individuals have sufficient download capacity to use telecommunication services for a broad range of purposes. As noted by the CRTC only a small share (12% in 2013) of Canadian high speed internet subscribers have unlimited download capacity internet subscriptions.[footnoteRef:44] While low internet users do not benefit from unlimited data caps, there is still a need for greater offerings of unlimited services. The CRTC notes that of 17 providers in urban areas only eight offered unlimited service.[footnoteRef:45] While not all providers should be mandated to offer unlimited service, the Commission should ensure that unlimited data cap services are available in all markets/regions. [44: CRTC. Communications Monitoring Report 2014. p. 178.] [45: CRTC. Communications Monitoring Report 2014. p. 182.] 19. Affordability is also a crucial element for telecommunication services, particularly for rural and remote Canadians. The CRTC notes that in urban areas the cost of 5 Mbps internet service ranges from lows of $23 to $63 per month and highs of $63 to $72 per month with the exception of Iqaluit.[footnoteRef:46] However, for rural Canadians the prices were considerably higher with the low range of 5 Mbps service ranging from $32 to $90 per month and the highs of between $65 to $130 per month, with rural subscribers in Nunavut and the Northwest Territories paying up to $500 per month. Ensuring that rural and remote Canadians have affordable internet services must be a key objective of the CRTC in ensuring that the objectives of the Canadian Telecommunication Policy are met. [46: CRTC. Communications Monitoring Report 2014. p. 182.] 20. With regard to quality, speed is an important consideration in determining the quality of broadband connections. For example, in considering speed for educational uses, the United States Federal Communication Commission (FCC) Broadband **** Guide suggests a minimum download speed of 4 Mbps for “HD-quality streaming movie or university lecture” and a minimum download speed of 4 Mbps for “HD video conference and telelearning”, but these guidelines are “based on running one activity at a time.”[footnoteRef:47] As per the FCC’s Household Broadband Guide, a minimum download speeds of 6 Mbps is required for the learner to run these high-demand educational activities simultaneously or to run one activity while another member of the household also runs a high-demand activity.[footnoteRef:48] **** Salway, executive director of the New **** State Broadband Program, suggests a higher range of 10 Mbps to 25 Mbps for telemedicine and remote education applications.”[footnoteRef:49] In addition, the U.S.-based California Broadband Task Force estimated that telemedicine will require speeds between 10 and 100 Mbit/s and that high-definition telemedicine will require broadband speeds of over 100 Mbit/s. [footnoteRef:50] Canada’s Public Policy Forum recommends a minimum speed of 9 Mbps download and 1.5 Mbps upload for Northern communities to meet their needs, speeds “based on average requirements for various services, from basic administrative services on the low end, to health and education at the high end.”[footnoteRef:51] [47: United States - Federal Communications Commission (FCC). 2015. Broadband **** Guide. https://www.fcc.gov/guides/broadband-speed-guide ] [48: FCC. 2015. Household Broadband Guide. https://www.fcc.gov/guides/household-broadband-guide ] [49: ****, Salway. 2015. How Much Broadband **** do you need? http://broadband.about.com/b/2011/10/01/broadbandspeedtable.htm] [50: California Broadband Task Force. 2008. The State of Connectivity: Building Innovation through Broadband; Final Report. Sacramento: California Broadband Task Force. p. 6] [51: Canada’s Public Policy Forum. 2014. Northern Communities: Broadband and Canada’s Digital Divide. http://www.ppforum.ca/sites/default/files/Background%20report%20-%20discussion%20paper,%20February%2018%202014.pdf p. 17.] 1b. Identify and explain the barriers that limit or prevent Canadians from meaningfully participating in the digital economy (e.g. availability, quality, price, digital literacy, and concerns related to privacy and security). Identify which segments of the Canadian population are experiencing such barriers.

21. The Notice of Consultation identifies the key barriers that limit Canadians from meaningfully participating in the digital economy, specifically availability, quality, price and digital literacy.

22. In regards to availability, there is a clear need achieve universal broadband availability. While broadband availability in Canada is high (97% nationally for residences),[footnoteRef:52] more must be done to ensure that availability is increased in rural areas where it stands at only 84%.[footnoteRef:53] More importantly though there is also a crucial need to increase actual uptake (penetration) and not just availability. As noted in the CRTC’s most recent Communications Monitoring Report, residential penetration for all speeds is only 80%, and for speeds a 5 Mbps or higher it is only 67%.[footnoteRef:54] With regard to mobile wireless availability, long-term evolution (LTE) services are available to only 81% of the population.[footnoteRef:55] [52: CRTC. Communications Monitoring Report 2014. p. 171.] [53: CRTC. Communications Monitoring Report 2014. p. 171.] [54: CRTC. Communications Monitoring Report 2014. p. 171.] [55: CRTC. Communications Monitoring Report 2014. p. 207.] 23. In regards to quality, there is a considerable need to greatly expand the number of FTTP connections in Canada. As noted in paragraph 14, there is a greater need to increase the number of fibre connections in Canada. There is also a need to increase availability of highest speed connections (such as those facilitated by FTTP). As reported by the CRTC, only 60% of Canadians have broadband at speeds of 100 Mbps or more available to them.[footnoteRef:56] Certain provinces and territories stand at a distinct disadvantage in comparison to others with regards to having higher speed broadband available. Several provinces and territories (including Prince Edward Island, Manitoba, Yukon and the Northwest Territories) have 5-9.9 Mbps broadband available to at least 4/5th of the population, but see a significant decline in availability in the next speed tier (10-15.9 Mbps). Nunavut has no broadband available the 5-9.9 Mbps range.[footnoteRef:57] Several provinces also suffer from a lack of coverage by LTE wireless signals, with LTE coverage rates of roughly 5% or less in New Brunswick, Newfoundland and Labrador and all three territories.[footnoteRef:58] [56: CRTC. Communications Monitoring Report 2014. p. 195.] [57: CRTC. Communications Monitoring Report 2014. p. 195.] [58: CRTC. Communications Monitoring Report 2014. p. 231.] 24. Unsurprisingly rural Canadians are at the greatest disadvantage with regards to high speed broadband availability. Figure 3 (below) reflects this.

Figure 3. Broadband Availability – Urban vs. Rural (percentage of households) (2013)[footnoteRef:59] [59: CRTC. Communications Monitoring Report 2014. p. 197.]
[image: ]

As indicated by Figure 3, there is significant room for not only increasing the highest speed connections (100 Mbps or more) for large and medium population centres, but for rural Canadians who tend to lack access to speeds above 9.9 Mbps.

25. In regards to price, there is a clear need to ensure that affordable broadband services are available across the country. This is true in rural and remote regions and in Canada’s northern territories in particular. Statistics Canada reports that median family income in Nunavut is $63,300.[footnoteRef:60] With 5 Mbps internet services costing $180 per month in urban Nunavut and $370 per month in rural areas of the territory,[footnoteRef:61] this means that on average urban households would be spending 3.5 percent of their pre-tax income on broadband, and rural households 7 percent of their pre-tax income. In contrast in Toronto, where median household income is comparable ($72,830),[footnoteRef:62] 5 Mbps internet service is available at a low of $25 per month and high of $65 per month, or 1 percent and 4.2 percent of pre-tax income per month respectively. For rural and remote Canadians there is a clear need to ensure that broadband services are made not only universal but at costs comparable to urban broadband services. [60: Statistics Canada. 2015. “Median Total Income, by Family Type, by Province and Territory.” CANSIM Table 111-0009. http://www.statcan.gc.ca/tables-tableaux/sum-som/l01/cst01/famil108a-eng.htm ] [61: CRTC. 2014. Communications Monitoring Report 2014. p. 183] [62: Statistics Canada. 2015. “Median Total Income, by Family Type, by Census Metropolitan Area.” CANSIM Table 111-0009. http://www.statcan.gc.ca/tables-tableaux/sum-som/l01/cst01/famil107a-eng.htm ] 26. Digital literacy skills are a key barrier for the successful use of telecommunication services and participation in the digital economy. As noted in paragraph 10, while the Government of Canada emphasizes the importance of such skills, it lacks substantive policies aimed at increasing such skills in Canadians. The CRTC must consider digital literacy and skills development as a necessary element to address with regard to basic telecommunication services.

27. Furthermore, the Commission must define digital literacy broadly. In addition to basic digital skills necessary for utilizing the internet (operating a computer and internet browser), the CRTC must also consider the importance of more advanced digital skills such as retrieving and critically evaluating information on the internet and more technical skills such as understanding and troubleshooting networks. Increasing such skills in Canadians will not only increase Canadian competitiveness, but it will better ensure that communities are able to develop the knowledge necessary to meaningfully use, operate and maintain networks.

28. It is also important to note that like literacy and numeracy, digital literacy is not a binary concept (digitally literate versus digitally illiterate). Employment and Skills Development Canada identifies a range of essential skills profiles including digital literacy (termed ‘Computer Use’) and notes the range of complexity for each skill profile on a five point scale (level 1 to level 5).[footnoteRef:63] In considering digital literacy as a barrier to effective use of telecommunication services in the digital economy, the CRTC should use a similar approach in terms of categorizing ranges of digital literacy and not viewing digital literacy as a binary concept. Most importantly increasing digital literacy requires not only achieving universal lower level (i.e. level 1) digital literacy, but aiming to maximize the percentage of the population with the highest level of digital literacy skills (levels 4 and 5). [63: Employment and Skills Development Canada. 2007. ****’s Guide to Essential Skills Profiles. http://www.esdc.gc.ca/eng/jobs/les/profiles/readersguide.shtml#h2.9 ] 1d. Identify and explain any enablers that allow Canadians to meaningfully participate in the digital economy (e.g. connected devices and applications).

29. One enabler that requires special consideration is digital skills. While lack of skills is clearly a barrier, increasing digital skills is an important enabler of internet use. Other governments (including Australia, the United Kingdom and the state of California) have already adopted significant measures aimed at increasing digital skills within their populations.[footnoteRef:64] Increasing digital skills/literacy offers numerous benefits to ensure Canadians are able to participate in and remain competitive in the digital economy. [64: **** Chinien and **** Boutin. 2011. Defining Essential Digital Skills in the Canadian Workplace: Final Report. WDM Consultants. http://www.nald.ca/library/research/digi_es_can_workplace/digi_es_can_workplace.pdf p. 19-23.] 1e. As Canada’s digital economy continues to grow and evolve during the next 5 to 10 years, which telecommunications services are Canadians expected to need to participate meaningfully? Specify how your responses to parts a) through d) above would change based on your answer.

30. In regard to assessing which telecommunications services Canadians will need in the next five to ten years it is difficult to foresee what new uses may emerge; however, what is clear is that there will be a need for increased capacity to support existing uses as reflected in the CISCO Visual Networking Index.[footnoteRef:65] [65: Cisco. 2015. Cisco Visual Networking Index: Forecast and Methodology, 2014-2019. http://www.cisco.com/c/en/us/solutions/collateral/service-provider/ip-ngn-ip-next-generation-network/white_paper_c11-481360.html ] 31. According to CISCO, global internet traffic will grow at a compound annual growth rate of 23 percent from 2014 to 2019. Busy-hour internet traffic is predicted to grow more rapidly, and metro traffic will increase nearly twice as fast as long-haul traffic.[footnoteRef:66] The rapid growth in internet traffic, particularly busy hour traffic and metro traffic, underscores the increased need for expanded capacity. Increased FTTP connections in Canada will best ensure that Canadians remain able to fully utilize the internet and participate in the digital economy. [66: Cisco. Cisco Visual Networking Index.] 32. One area that Cisco predicts will show considerable growth is video content. Consumer video on demand traffic is expected to double by 2019 with 70 percent of such traffic being in high definition (HD), up from 59 percent in 2014.[footnoteRef:67] With HD becoming the increasing standard in terms of what consumers use, the CRTC should endeavour to ensure that Canadians will be able to access (download) HD content. Equally important though, the Commission should also consider the importance of ensuring that Canadians can upload HD content. Uploading HD content will be increasingly important for educational and business uses (such as producing HD content for online classes or HD video conferencing) and also for social uses as well (such as uploading YouTube videos and other user generated content (UGC)). UGC is both economically and socially valuable in the digital economy and can serve as an important mechanism for supporting the growth of digital skills/literacy.[footnoteRef:68] Ensuring that networks allow Canadians to both download and upload HD content is necessary to respond to section 7(h) of the Canadian Telecommunication Policy.[footnoteRef:69] [67: Cisco. Cisco Visual Networking Index.] [68: **** McNally, **** E. Trosow, **** Wong, **** Whippey, Jacquelyn Burkell, and **** J. McKenzie. 2012. “User-Generated Online Content 2: Policy Implications.” First Monday, 17(6): http://firstmonday.org/article/view/3913/3267 ] [69: Telecommunications Act (S.C. 1993 c. 38), s. 7(h).] 2. The Commission’s current target speeds for broadband Internet access service are a minimum of 5 Mbps download and 1 Mbps upload, based on uses that consumers should reasonably expect to make of the Internet. Are these target speeds sufficient to meet the minimum needs of Canadians today? If not, what should the new targets be and what time frame would be reasonable to achieve these new targets?

33. In the 2014 Communications Monitoring Report the CRTC identifies the various access data rate required for commonly accessed services (see Figure 4 (below).
Figure 4. Internet Access **** Requirements for Commonly Accessed Online Services.[footnoteRef:70] [70: CRTC. Communications Monitoring Report 2014. p. 189.]
[image: ]

As indicated by Figure 3 many of the commonly accessed online services require less than a 5 Mbps connection. As noted in paragraph 32, HD content is an increasingly important aspect of internet use, and speed targets must be adjusted for these needs.

33. Furthermore, there are a number of uses that require even greater speed ranges. **** Salway suggests a range of 20 to 50 Mbps to operate video surveillance, 50 to 100 Mbps for Video Conferencing (Multiple users), Remote Supercomputing and over 100 Mbps for ****-Time Data Collection, and ****-Time Medical Image Consultation.[footnoteRef:71] [71: Salway. How Much Broadband **** do you need? ] 34. Educational and medical uses of the internet may require even greater speeds. The Canadian Brain Imaging Network (CBRAIN) has used 100 Gbps network links to share 3D and 4D video images using the CANARIE research network.[footnoteRef:72] While such speeds are not necessary for individual users, rural and remote communities may benefit from access to such speeds. [72: ****. “The Need for ****.”] 35. Upload speed is an equally important consideration for a range of uses from file sharing and cloud computing to interactive learning. According to the FCC, “ideally, all of these applications would work best if upload speed were as high as download speed.”[footnoteRef:73] In considering minimum upload speeds, the CRTC should consider the benefits of requiring symmetrical upload and download speeds. [73: FCC. (2015). Broadband Service for the home: a consumer’s guide. https://www.fcc.gov/guides/broadband-service-home-consumers-guide] 36. Finally in regard to new speed targets and timelines for such targets, the CRTC should carefully consider the recently adopted FCC broadband benchmarks speeds. In January of 2015, the FCC revised its benchmark broadband speeds to 25 Mbps download and 3 Mbps upload.[footnoteRef:74] The CRTC should consider revising its own download and upload speeds to match those recently adopted by the FCC. [74: FCC. 2015. FCC Finds U.S. Broadband Deployment Not **** Pace. https://apps.fcc.gov/edocs_public/attachmatch/DOC-331760A1.pdf] 3. Which services should be considered by the Commission as basic telecommunications services necessary for Canadians to be able to meaningfully participate in the digital economy? Explain why.

37. Broadband internet should be considered a basic telecommunication service. Broadband connectivity facilitates the broadest range of telecommunication services. Broadband can facilitate Voice over Internet Protocol (VOIP), Over the Top (OTT) telecommunication services and access to the internet. As noted by the ITU, “high-speed, affordable broadband connectivity to the internet is a foundation stone of modern society.”[footnoteRef:75] Furthermore the ITU notes that affordable broadband connectivity is essential to modern society.[footnoteRef:76] Given that no other telecommunication service can provide as broad a range of uses, broadband must be considered a basic telecommunication service. The Government of Canada has also stated, “Broadband Internet access is essential infrastructure for today’s economy.”[footnoteRef:77] [75: ITU. The State of Broadband 2014. p. 8.] [76: ITU – Broadband Commission. 2013. The State of Broadband 2013: Universalizing Broadband. http://www.broadbandcommission.org/documents/bb-annualreport2013.pdf p. 8.] [77: Industry Canada. Digital Canada 150. p. 10.] 3a. Explain whether the underlying technology (e.g. cable, digital subscriber line, fibre, fixed wireless, mobile wireless, and satellite technology) should be a factor in defining whether a telecommunications service should be considered a basic service.

38. Underlying technology is a key factor in determining which telecommunications services should be considered basic. As noted in paragraph 13, FTTP is the increasing benchmark for internet connectivity and for wired connections it should be considered the most important underlying technology.

39. The importance of wired fibre connections should not undermine the importance of mobile wireless connections. A fibre connection does not make mobile wireless unnecessary, and conversely having mobile wireless coverage even at the fastest speeds LTE) does not diminish the need for residential fibre penetration.

40. With regard to broadband as a basic service, the goal should be to have universal fibre penetration. While using fibre as the underlying technology to support universal broadband as a basic service may seem beyond reach, the World Bank reports that since 1990 Canadians have had universal access (100% of the population with access) to electricity[footnoteRef:78] and water.[footnoteRef:79] Given that we can reach all of the Canadian population with electricity and improved water, the goal of universal fibre is not beyond reach. [78: World Bank. 2015. “Access to Electricity (% of Population).” http://data.worldbank.org/indicator/EG.ELC.ACCS.ZS?page=4 ] [79: World Bank. 2015. “Improved Water Source (% of Population with Access).” http://data.worldbank.org/indicator/SH.H2O.SAFE.ZS?page=5 ] 41. Recognizing that it may take some time to deploy universal fibre, mobile wireless may serve as a temporary stand in to facilitate broadband connectivity. Thus while broadband internet should be a basic service, with the ultimate goal of having universal FTTP, some regions, particularly rural and remote ones, may have to be serviced by mobile wireless in the interim. Given the lack of high speed fixed wireless access (FWA) in Canada,[footnoteRef:80] and the limitations of satellite,[footnoteRef:81] mobile wireless should be the preferred underlying technology for those areas without fibre. [80: **** Communications. 2015. **** Comparisons of Wireline, Wireless, and Internet Services in Canada with Foreign Jurisdictions: 2015 Edition (Wall Report). http://www.crtc.gc.ca/eng/publications/reports/wall2015/rp1506wall.pdf p. v.] [81: ****. “Fibre not Satellite for Local Economic Development.” p. 139.] 3b. Identify, with supporting rationale, the terms, conditions, and service characteristics under which basic telecommunications services should be provided. Should any obligations be placed on the provider(s) of these services? If so, what obligations and on which service provider(s)?

42. Actual versus advertised speeds is a key characteristic that should be considered. Consumers have often experienced differences between advertised broadband speeds and actual speeds. This situation is usually detrimental for the consumers who were promised and pay for a higher broadband speed than that received. This is not an invisible problem; the key players in the industry are aware of this challenge, as such “discussions of broadband performance have paid increasing attention to the sometimes significant gaps between advertised speeds and the ‘actual’ speeds consumers may experience.”[footnoteRef:82] Policy makers throughout the OECD have become increasing attuned to the importance of the monitoring actual versus advertised speeds.[footnoteRef:83] In order to ensure actual speed targets are being met, service providers should have to regularly report speed performance as well as participate in third party testing. [82: OECD. Communications Outlook 2013. p. 107.] [83: OECD. Communications Outlook 2013. p. 107.] 3c. What should be the prices for basic telecommunications services and how should these prices be determined? Provide rationale to support your answer.

43. As reflected in section 7(b) of the Telecommunications Act/Canadian Telecommunication Policy, affordability is a required objective of Canada’s telecommunications system. As indicated in paragraph 25, there are considerable differences in the cost of broadband internet in various regions of the country both in absolute terms and relative to pre-tax income. At the same time, we recognize the capital and operating costs of building telecommunications infrastructure both for wired and wireless connections and ensuring necessary capacity.

44. As indicated in the most recent **** Comparisons of Wireline , Wireless and internet Services in Canada with Foreign Jurisdictions Report (Wall Report) Canadian wireline and wireless services, particularly in the lowest three costs baskets, have increased in cost significantly the past year,[footnoteRef:84] though broadband prices have declined relative to last year.[footnoteRef:85] “Canadian broadband Internet service prices compare favourably with the other surveyed countries in the case of the Level 1 (< 3.0 Mbps download speeds) and Level 2 (4 – 15 Mbps) broadband service baskets.”[footnoteRef:86] However, the Canadian Level 3 and Level 4 service baskets did not compare as favourably, as these “basket prices are higher than the prices measured in the surveyed countries included in the study, with the exception of Japan and the U.S. in the first case and solely the U.S. in the latter case.”[footnoteRef:87] [84: **** Communications. **** Report. p. ii.] [85: **** Communications. **** Report. p. iv.] [86: **** Communications. **** Report. p. 42] [87: **** Communications. **** Report. p. 42.] 45. As noted by the 2014 Communication Monitoring Report, Canadian broadband pricing for fixed broadband at the very high speed (>40 Mbps) is ranked second highest (behind only the United States) out of the list of seven comparator countries.[footnoteRef:88] Canada also ranks second highest in the comparator group with respect to cost for average mobile services.[footnoteRef:89] [88: CRTC. Communications Monitoring Report 2014. p. 256. ] [89: CRTC. Communications Monitoring Report 2014. p. 256.] 46. While international comparisons are useful for identifying the general cost of Canadian broadband services relative to other countries, it is also necessary to consider what a reasonable price for broadband would be relative to other expenditures and income. For example, Statistics Canada reports that the average expenditure on household utilities (water, electricity and fuel) in 2013 represents 3% of all household expenditures.[footnoteRef:90] By comparison household expenditures on all communications services amounted to roughly 2.5% of total household spending.[footnoteRef:91] Given existing spending on communications and utilities expenditures, having broadband offered at as basic service, it would appear reasonable to have a price of roughly 1% of total household expenditures. [90: Statistics Canada. 2015. “Survey of Household Spending (SHS), Household Spending, Canada, Regions and Provinces.” CANSIM Table 203-0021. http://www5.statcan.gc.ca/cansim/a26?lang=eng&id=2030021] [91: Statistics Canada. “Survey of Household Spending (SHS).”] 47. Furthermore in 2013 average household expenditures in Canada totaled $79,012;[footnoteRef:92] in 2013 median total income for families was $76,550,[footnoteRef:93] and in 2011 average income after tax by economic families was $79,600.[footnoteRef:94] Given the relative similarities between average household expenditure, median income, and average income after tax by families, it would appear that pegging price to roughly 1% of these totals would seem a reasonable starting point for establishing a price for broadband as a basic service. More importantly, these numbers can and should be adjusted on a regional basis. Thus prices for services in rural Nunavut should reflect incomes and expenditures in Nunavut, while prices in urban Vancouver could reflect local incomes and expenditures. [92: Statistics Canada. “Survey of Household Spending (SHS).”] [93: Statistics Canada. “Median Total Income, by Family Type, by Province and Territory.”] [94: Statistics Canada. “Average Income after Tax by Economic Family Types (2007 to 2011).” CANSIM Table 202-0603. http://www.statcan.gc.ca/tables-tableaux/sum-som/l01/cst01/famil21a-eng.htm ] 4. Can market forces and government funding be relied on to ensure that all Canadians have access to basic telecommunications services? What are the roles of the private sector and the various levels of government (federal, provincial, territorial, and municipal) in ensuring that investment in telecommunications infrastructure results in the availability of modern telecommunications services to all Canadians?

48. The current Canadian approach to telecommunication services is overly reliant on market forces. Market forces are disproportionately favoured in both the Order Issuing a Direction to the CRTC on Implementing Canadian Telecommunications Policy Objectives[footnoteRef:95] and the Spectrum Policy Framework for Canada[footnoteRef:96] both of which note that market forces should be relied upon to the maximum extent feasible. [95: Order Issuing a Direction to the CRTC on Implementing the Canadian Telecommunications Policy Objectives. SOR. 2006-355. s. 1(a)(i). http://laws-lois.justice.gc.ca/eng/regulations/SOR-2006-355/page-1.html ] [96: Industry Canada. 2007. Spectrum Policy Framework for Canada. http://www.ic.gc.ca/eic/site/smt-gst.nsf/eng/sf08776.html p. 9.] 49. The over-emphasis on market forces is concomitant with a de-emphasis on regulation. Regulation is to be used in the “minimum extent necessary”[footnoteRef:97] in the Order in Council and should be “minimally intrusive”[footnoteRef:98] according the Spectrum Policy Framework for Canada. [97: Order Issuing a Direction to the CRTC. s. 1(a)(ii).] [98: Industry Canada. Spectrum Policy Framework for Canada. p. 9] 50. **** of Industry Canada’s recent broadband programs (Broadband Canada and Connecting Canadians) have been overly reliant on having market forces direct broadband investment. As discussed above in paragraph 9, given broadband availability in Canada of 97%, and Connecting Canadians 5 year goal of increasing it to only 98%, there is a clear need for a more ambitious policy and regulatory framework.

51. The reliance on market forces is problematic because of two factors – a) some regions of Canada simply lack effective markets for market forces to operate in (primarily rural and remote regions, and Canada’s north in particular); and, b) in markets where there is competition, markets are highly concentrated and perfect market competition is impeded by oligopolistic competition.

52. Increased regulation is not only effective, but required for ensuring increased broadband penetration for rural and remote Canadians. For example in the recent AWS-3 spectrum auctions increased deployment targets, which stem from regulation facilitated through the auction consultation process, will result in a significant increase in the number of population centres that will have be served and at an increased timeline (eight rather than 10 years after the awarding of licenses).[footnoteRef:99] [99: **** Stobbs, **** Evaniew, **** McNally, and **** Rathi. 2015. “Strengthening Spectrum License Deployment Requirements: An Analysis of the Path of Least Resistance for the AWS-3 Auction.” Presented at the Canadian Communication Association Annual Conference. 5 ****, 2015. Ottawa, ON. https://era.library.ualberta.ca/public/view/item/uuid:3fb121d5-ae88-467d-9f90-fac710f04a72/ ] 13. If there is a need to establish a new funding mechanism to support the provision of modern telecommunications services, describe how this mechanism would operate. Your response should address the mechanism described in Telecom Regulatory Policy 2013-711 for transport services and/or any other mechanism necessary to support modern telecommunications services across Canada.

53. In considering any new funding mechanism to support the provision of modern telecommunication services there are a broad range of policy recommendations that can be made to maximize the impact of broadband internet. Paramount is that any such approach be considered in a holistic manner. The CRTC must consider both supply side and demand side factors, issues for urban rural and remote Canadians and the fact that no single approach will be ideally suited to all communities, service providers and individuals. In developing new funding mechanisms it necessary to ensure that the policy and regulatory frameworks empower rather than inhibit broadband deployment in a range of communities.

54. In the 2013 report The State of Broadband 2013: Universalizing Broadband the ITU identifies a broad range of policy mechanisms that can be used;[footnoteRef:100] however, not all of these policy approaches fall under the regulatory purview of the CRTC. Regardless it is important to note some of these approaches as the CRTC, in addition to using its regulatory power to universalize broadband in Canada, must also be part of a larger policy discussion about broadband in Canada. Policy mechanisms which are outside the scope of the CRTC include promoting market liberalization, reviewing policy frameworks for spectrum and increasing the amount of open spectrum. [100: ITU – Broadband Commission. 2013. The State of Broadband 2013: Universalizing Broadband. http://www.broadbandcommission.org/documents/bb-annualreport2013.pdf p. 78-85.] 55. It should also be noted that as indicated in Tables 1 and 2 (below) total spending (in nominal dollars) by all levels of government on broadband since 1995 exceeds $3 billion (CAD). While this total is large in the aggregate, in a $1.7 trillion (USD) economy[footnoteRef:101] where federal expenditures in a single year are roughly $280 billion (CAD),[footnoteRef:102] we have not invested heavily in broadband. While we had several early successes in broadband deployment, we now are falling relative to other nations, and should be willing to make a significant national commitment given the importance of broadband. [101: World Bank. 2015. GDP (Current US$). http://data.worldbank.org/indicator/NY.GDP.MKTP.CD ] [102: Canada. Budget 2014. p. 268.] 56. Ideally a national broadband project should be funded from general federal revenues, or alternatively from spectrum license revenues.

57. Given the CRTC’s specific interest in a new funding mechanism that falls under its regulatory purview, we recommend establishing a fund to create a national fibre network based off of the utility model. As noted in paragraph 40, Canada has demonstrated considerable success in electrifying and providing improved water to all Canadians.

58. Establishing a regulatory model for fibre akin to regulation of other utilities (gas, water, electricity) appears to be the most effective regulatory approach. Such an approach would ensure that infrastructure costs are not duplicated, while facilitating competition for services over the regulated infrastructure.

59. A regulated fibre utility model would also be capable of delivering fibre to rural and remote Canadians, arguably those who have the most to gain and greatest need for enhanced broadband service.

60. In addition to the fibre utility model, which addresses the supply side of broadband, the CRTC should also, in conjunction with Employment and Skills Development Canada, develop a national digital literacy strategy and series of programs to foster digital literacy skills in Canada.

61. As noted earlier, such a program should conceive of digital skills broadly. This has direct benefit for telecommunications in Canada as developing Canadians digital skills may result in increased technological understanding in communities and individuals, and as a result allow novel community based broadband solutions to emerge.

Intervention for CRTC Notice of Consultation 2015-134 McNally et al.
10
Table 1 – Federal Broadband Programs
Connecting Canadians: Digital Canada 150
Northern component of Connecting Canadians in **** Inlet, Nunavut.
[bookmark: OLE_LINK13][bookmark: OLE_LINK14]Broadband Canada: Connecting Rural Canadians
The Broadband for Rural & Northern Development (BRAND) Program
National Satellite Initiative (NSI)
First Nations Infrastructure Fund (FNIF)
The Northern Indigenous Community Satellite Network (NICSN)
(National Satellite Initiative project)
Community Access Program (CAP)
Industry Canada’s SchoolNet Program
Department responsible
Industry Canada
Industry Canada
Industry Canada
Industry Canada

Industry Canada, the Canadian Strategic Infrastructure Fund (CSIF), Industry Canada, and the Canadian Space Agency (CSA)[footnoteRef:103] [103: Industry Canada. (2005). The National Satellite Initiative – About Us. http://web.archive.org/web/20050831160220/http://broadband.gc.ca/pub/program/nsi/aboutus.html p. 1] Aboriginal Affairs and Northern Development Canada (previously Indian and Northern Affairs Canada)

Keewaytinook Okimakanak (K-NET), the Kativik Regional Government (KRG) and Keewatin Tribal Council (KTC)[footnoteRef:104] [104: Broadband Communications ****. (2009, **** 10). BCN is announcing upgrades to the satellite network that will provide increased bandwidth capacity to the communities utilizing the C-Band satellite solution. http://www.gobcn.ca/newspage/news-and-press-releases/bcn-announces-upgrades-to-satellite-network p. 1] Industry Canada

% of region with access

“boost speeds to 5 Mbps for up to 98 percent of Canadians” [footnoteRef:105] [105: Industry Canada. Connecting Canadians: Digital Canada 150 – For Canadians and Communities. http://www.ic.gc.ca/eic/site/028.nsf/eng/h_00587.html p. 3.] “Over 98% of all Canadians will have access to high-speed Internet at 5 megabits per second (Mbps)—a rate that enables e-commerce, high-resolution video, employment opportunities and distance education—providing rural and remote communities with faster, more reliable online services” [footnoteRef:106] [106: Industry Canada. (2014). Digital Canada 150 – The Strategy. http://www.ic.gc.ca/eic/site/028.nsf/eng/00576.html p. 4-5] “Over 99 percent of Canadian households currently have access to basic Internet with speeds of 1.5 Mbps, but newer online technologies typically require faster speeds and higher data transfer rates” [footnoteRef:107]. [107: Industry Canada. Connecting Canadians: Digital Canada 150 – For Canadians and Communities. http://www.ic.gc.ca/eic/site/028.nsf/eng/h_00587.html p. 2] “By 2012, fewer than 2% of Canadian households will remain without access to broadband Internet services” [footnoteRef:108] [108: Industry Canada. (2013). Frequently Asked Questions - Broadband Canada/ Connecting Rural Canadians. https://web.archive.org/web/20130630095302/http://www.ic.gc.ca/eic/site/719.nsf/eng/h_00071.html#p2.1 p. 4] “some 94 percent of Canadian households have access to broadband connectivity via terrestrial networks” [footnoteRef:109] [109: Industry Canada. (2009). Broadband Canada Connecting Rural Canadians: Application Guide. http://web.archive.org/web/20110523235341/http://www.ic.gc.ca/eic/site/719.nsf/vwapj/Application_Guide_September2009.pdf/$file/Application_Guide_September2009.pdf p. 4] “some 22 percent of rural households are without broadband connectivity” [footnoteRef:110] [110: Industry Canada. (2009). Broadband Canada Connecting Rural Canadians: Application Guide. http://web.archive.org/web/20110523235341/http://www.ic.gc.ca/eic/site/719.nsf/vwapj/Application_Guide_September2009.pdf/$file/Application_Guide_September2009.pdf p. 4] (In 2006): “An estimated 2,000 communities still do not have access to broadband”[footnoteRef:111] [111: Industry Canada. (2006) Formative Evaluation of the Broadband for Rural & Northern Development ****-Final Report. https://www.ic.gc.ca/eic/site/ae-ve.nsf/vwapj/BroadbandFinalReport.pdf/$file/BroadbandFinalReport.pdf 67.] (In 2004): “Broadband networks, although currently available to approx 80% of the population, are only available to 20% of Canadian communities”[footnoteRef:112] [112: Industry Canada. (2004b). Broadband: Frequently Asked Questions. http://web.archive.org/web/20040606181423/http://broadband.gc.ca/pub/faqs/faqscomplete.html p. 2] “In 2009, 94% of Canadians live in a community where broadband access is available for purchase; only fifty-two percent 52% of all Canadian homes have a broadband internet connection”[footnoteRef:113] [113: Industry Canada. Final Evaluation of the Community Access Program (CAP). https://www.ic.gc.ca/eic/site/ae-ve.nsf/eng/03126.html?Open&pv=1 p. 11.] “Increased computer access to the Internet (i.e., increased connectednessî), and facilitating the use of this access for a variety of purposes” [footnoteRef:114] [114: KPMG. (2001). Evaluation of the SchoolNet1 Initiative: Final Report, p. 7] According to the survey results, responding school boards report that there are currently 484,246 computers capable

of accessing the Internet in their schools.
The breakdown for this number is 273,047 in primary/intermediate schools
while 211,199 are located in secondary schools.

Of the number of capable computers, 425,234, 88%, are connected to the Internet. The breakdown for these connected computers is 236,413 in primary/intermediate schools and 188,821 in secondary schools classrooms


[footnoteRef:115] [115: Industry Canada. (2000a). SchoolNet’s Online Connectivity Survey Final Report. http://web.archive.org/web/20010513192147/http://www.schoolnet.ca/home/e/Research_Papers/Research/SchoolNet_Research/Final_Survey_Report_2000(English).htm] The level of connectivity in First Nations schools varies greatly across the country due primarily to the proportion of remote and isolated communities as well as to other geographic constraints. As of December 2007:

· 48% of First Nations schools with high speed connection o6.1% had a connection speed of 10Mbps or greater o41.9% had a connection speed between 1.5 and 10Mbps; 

·
· 80% or more of First Nations schools in Alberta, Québec and the Atlantic region have high speed connection;
· 


· Less than half of First Nations schools in the other provinces have a connection that is considered high speed. [footnoteRef:116]
 [116: Indians and Northern Affairs Canada. Evaluation, Measurement and Review Branch, Audit and Evaluation Sector. (2009). Evaluation of the First Nations SchoolNet Program. Final Report. https://www.aadnc-aandc.gc.ca/DAM/DAM-INTER-HQ/STAGING/texte-text/fns_1100100011858_eng.pdf p. 14, 18.] Regions targeted

“rural and remote areas”[footnoteRef:117] [117: Industry Canada. Digital Canada 150 – The Strategy. http://www.ic.gc.ca/eic/site/028.nsf/eng/00576.html p. 6]

Nunavut and the Nunavik region of Quebec[footnoteRef:118] [118: Industry Canada. (2014). Connecting Canadians: Digital Canada 150 – For Canadians and Communities. http://www.ic.gc.ca/eic/site/028.nsf/eng/h_00587.html p. 3.] “rural and remote areas”[footnoteRef:119] [119: Industry Canada. (2013). Frequently Asked Questions - Broadband Canada/ Connecting Rural Canadians. https://web.archive.org/web/20130630095302/http://www.ic.gc.ca/eic/site/719.nsf/eng/h_00071.html#p2.1 p. 4.] “priority placed on First Nations, Inuit and Métis, northern, rural and remote communities; Other government departments (federal, provincial, territorial, municipal); Regional Development Agencies; Private Sector Not-for-Profit organizations; Professional Associations; Economic Development Agencies; Non-Government organizations; Telecommunications companies”[footnoteRef:120] [120: Industry Canada. (2006). Formative Evaluation of the Broadband for Rural & Northern Development ****-Final Report. Development ****: Final Report. https://www.ic.gc.ca/eic/site/ae-ve.nsf/vwapj/BroadbandFinalReport.pdf/$file/BroadbandFinalReport.pdf p. iii] Years in operation

2014 – 2017[footnoteRef:121] [121: Industry Canada. Connecting Canadians: Digital Canada 150 – For Canadians and Communities. http://www.ic.gc.ca/eic/site/028.nsf/eng/h_00587.html p. 1.] 2014 – 2017[footnoteRef:122] [122: Industry Canada. Connecting Canadians: Digital Canada 150 – For Canadians and Communities. http://www.ic.gc.ca/eic/site/028.nsf/eng/h_00587.html p. 1.] **** 2009 – **** 2012[footnoteRef:123] [123: Industry Canada. Broadband Canada: Connecting Rural Canadians, p. 1.]

2002 (September) -2007[footnoteRef:124] [124: Industry Canada. (2006) Formative Evaluation of the Broadband for Rural & Northern Development ****-Final Report. https://www.ic.gc.ca/eic/site/ae-ve.nsf/vwapj/BroadbandFinalReport.pdf/$file/BroadbandFinalReport.pdf p. i.] Initial plan was for program to end in 2005 but funding was extended[footnoteRef:125] [125: Industry Canada. (2006) Formative Evaluation of the Broadband for Rural & Northern Development ****-Final Report. https://www.ic.gc.ca/eic/site/ae-ve.nsf/vwapj/BroadbandFinalReport.pdf/$file/BroadbandFinalReport.pdf, p. i.] October 2003[footnoteRef:126] - 2009 [126: Infrastructure Canada. (2003). Government of Canada launches National Satellite Initiative to provide Broadband access to Northern and Remote Communities, http://web.archive.org/web/20050831045727/http://www.infrastructure.gc.ca/csif/publication/newsreleases/2003/20031005rankininlet_e.shtml p. 1.] 2007-2013[footnoteRef:127] [127: Aboriginal Affairs and Northern Development Canada. (2013). First Nation Infrastructure Fund. http://meeting.knet.ca/mp19/mod/book/view.php?id=4053&chapterid=2166 p. 1] 1998 – 2005

Bandwith secured until 2020[footnoteRef:128] [128: **** Severn First Nation. NICSN: Broadband by Satellite, http://fortsevern.firstnation.ca/node/139 p. 1.]

1994-2009[footnoteRef:129] [129: Industry Canada. Final Evaluation of the Community Access Program (CAP). https://www.ic.gc.ca/eic/site/ae-ve.nsf/eng/03126.html?Open&pv=1 p. 7] FNS: 1996 – 2009

School Net: 1996-2008
Money spent per program

Up to $305 million[footnoteRef:130] [130: Industry Canada. Connecting Canadians: Digital Canada 150 – For Canadians and Communities. http://www.ic.gc.ca/eic/site/028.nsf/eng/h_00587.html p. 1.] $50 Million[footnoteRef:131] [131: Industry Canada. Connecting Canadians: Digital Canada 150 – For Canadians and Communities. http://www.ic.gc.ca/eic/site/028.nsf/eng/h_00587.html p. 3.] $190 million[footnoteRef:132] [132: Industry Canada. (2011) Audit of the Broadband Canada Program. https://www.ic.gc.ca/eic/site/ae-ve.nsf/eng/03406.html?Open&pv=1 p. 2.]

$105 Million allocated[footnoteRef:133] [133: Industry Canada. (2006) Formative Evaluation of the Broadband for Rural & Northern Development ****-Final Report. https://www.ic.gc.ca/eic/site/ae-ve.nsf/vwapj/BroadbandFinalReport.pdf/$file/BroadbandFinalReport.pdf p. i.] However,

A total 154 projects were funded under Phase I ($4 million) and 63 projects were funded under Phase II ($80 million).[footnoteRef:134] [134: Industry Canada. (2007) Audit of the Broadband Rural and Northern Development **** Program. https://www.ic.gc.ca/eic/site/ae-ve.nsf/eng/00352.html?Open&pv=1 p. 2.] $84 million in total

$155 Million[footnoteRef:135] [135: Industry Canada – National Satellite Initiative. (2003). First Call for Applications for Access to Satellite Capacity. http://web.archive.org/web/20040609132026/http://broadband.gc.ca/pub/program/nsi/guide/nsi_r1_en.pdf p.1Infrastructure Canada. (2003). Government of Canada launches National Satellite Initiative to provide Broadband access to Northern and Remote Communities, http://web.archive.org/web/20050831045727/http://www.infrastructure.gc.ca/csif/publication/newsreleases/2003/20031005rankininlet_e.shtml p. 1. ] $234.9 million total[footnoteRef:136] [136: Indian and Northern Affairs Canada. First Nation Infrastructure Fund Activity Report (2007-2012). https://www.aadnc-aandc.gc.ca/DAM/DAM-INTER-HQ-IH/STAGING/texte-text/fNIF_activity_report2007_2012_1363970334826_eng.pdf p. 4.] $31,576,345 for 16 connectivity projects[footnoteRef:137] [137: Indian and Northern Affairs Canada. First Nation Infrastructure Fund (FNIF) Program Guide. http://www.aadnc-aandc.gc.ca/DAM/DAM-INTER-HQ/STAGING/texte-text/prg_1100100010660_eng.pdf p. 3.] $20.6 Million from the Canadian Strategic Infrastructure Fund[footnoteRef:138] [138: Government of Canada. Canadian Strategic Infrastructure Fund Projects, http://www.infrastructure.gc.ca/prog/csif-fcis-eng.html p. 1.] Another $13.5 Million was from the Northern Ontario Heritage fund, Government of Québec’s Villages branchés program and Telesat Canada[footnoteRef:139] [139: Broadband Communications ****. (2009, **** 10). BCN is announcing upgrades to the satellite network that will provide increased bandwidth capacity to the communities utilizing the C-Band satellite solution. http://www.gobcn.ca/newspage/news-and-press-releases/bcn-announces-upgrades-to-satellite-network. p 1] Just over $420 million[footnoteRef:140] [140: Industry Canada. Final Evaluation of the Community Access Program (CAP). https://www.ic.gc.ca/eic/site/ae-ve.nsf/eng/03126.html?Open&pv=1 p. 1. Note: see statistics on funds leveraged from other sources on p 4, 22-23.] FNS: $12 million/year (1996 – 2003) and $15 million/year (2004 – 2006).

SchoolNet: $45 million/year (1996 – 2003) and $25 million/year (2004 – 2006)

(Under INAC): $9.78 million in 2007 and $6.9 million in 2008[footnoteRef:141] [141: Indians and Northern Affairs Canada. Evaluation, Measurement and Review Branch, Audit and Evaluation Sector. (2009). Evaluation of the First Nations SchoolNet Program. Final Report. https://www.aadnc-aandc.gc.ca/DAM/DAM-INTER-HQ/STAGING/texte-text/fns_1100100011858_eng.pdf p. 3] Approx. total money spent to date

$1 805 356 345
$1 500 356 345
$1 450 356 345
$1 260 356 345
$1 176 356 345
$1 021 356 345
$989.78 million
$955.68 million
$535.68 million
Type of connection

“A total of 84 projects were funded in five provinces and two territories, bringing broadband access to a total of 218,000 previously unserved and underserved households”[footnoteRef:142] [142: Industry Canada. (2012). About the Program - Broadband Canada/ Connecting Rural Canadians. https://web.archive.org/web/20130630095244/http://www.ic.gc.ca/eic/site/719.nsf/eng/h_00001.html p 1.] Households[footnoteRef:143] [143: Industry Canada. (2014). Connecting Canadians: Digital Canada 150 – For Canadians and Communities. http://www.ic.gc.ca/eic/site/028.nsf/eng/h_00587.html p. 3.] Households[footnoteRef:144] [144: Industry Canada. About the Program - Broadband Canada/ Connecting Rural Canadians, https://web.archive.org/web/20130630095244/http://www.ic.gc.ca/eic/site/719.nsf/eng/h_00001.html p. 1.] “Canadian communities without Broadband access - with priority placed on First Nations, Inuit and Métis, northern, rural and remote communities; Other government departments (federal, provincial, territorial, municipal); Regional Development Agencies; Private Sector Not-for-Profit organizations; Professional Associations; Economic Development Agencies; Non-Government organizations; Telecommunications companies”Canadian households as possible[footnoteRef:145] [145: Industry Canada (2009, **** 1). Broadband Canada: Connecting Rural Canadians Launches its Call-for-Applications Process, p. 1-2] for use primarily by public institutions and community-based applications. Public institutions are institutions that provide public services such as health, education, social services, justice and governance.

[footnoteRef:146] [146: Industry Canada – National Satellite Initiative. (2003). First Call for Applications for Access to Satellite Capacity. http://web.archive.org/web/20040609132026/http://broadband.gc.ca/pub/program/nsi/guide/nsi_r1_en.pdf p.1] First Nations Communities[footnoteRef:147] [147: Aboriginal Affairs, First Nation Infrastructure Fund. https://www.aadnc-aandc.gc.ca/eng/1100100010656/1100100010657 p. 1.] Communities[footnoteRef:148] [148: National C-Band Benefit User Group. National C-Band Public Benefit Working Group, http://smart.knet.ca/satellite/ p. 2.]

Communities

SchoolNet has been extremely successful in meeting its original objective of facilitating the electronic connection of Canadaís public schools, First Nationsí schools, and public libraries (LibraryNet), [footnoteRef:149] [149: KPMG. (2001). Evaluation of the SchoolNet1 Initiative: Final Report, p. i] In fact, 100% of schools and libraries that wish to be connected, now are connected. For First Nations schools, this is particularly relevant because of the remote settings for many of these schoolshere First Nations SchoolNet has provided satellite connections to schools that almost certainly would not have them otherwise. [footnoteRef:150] [150: KPMG. (2001). Evaluation of the SchoolNet1 Initiative: Final Report, p. ii] No. of Households

280,000 Canadian households[footnoteRef:151] [151: Industry Canada. (2014). Digital Canada 150 – The Strategy. http://www.ic.gc.ca/eic/site/028.nsf/eng/00576.html p. 6]

12,000 households in Nunavut and the Nunavik region of Quebec[footnoteRef:152] [152: Industry Canada. Connecting Canadians: Digital Canada 150 – For Canadians and Communities. http://www.ic.gc.ca/eic/site/028.nsf/eng/h_00587.html p. 3.] bringing broadband access

unserved and underserved households”[footnoteRef:153] [153: Industry Canada. About the Program - Broadband Canada/ Connecting Rural Canadians, https://web.archive.org/web/20130630095244/http://www.ic.gc.ca/eic/site/719.nsf/eng/h_00001.html p. 1.] No. of communities

Funding aided

896 communities[footnoteRef:154] [154: Industry Canada. (2006) Formative Evaluation of the Broadband for Rural & Northern Development ****-Final Report. https://www.ic.gc.ca/eic/site/ae-ve.nsf/vwapj/BroadbandFinalReport.pdf/$file/BroadbandFinalReport.pdfp. viii] (including 142 First Nations reserves) with 63 projects[footnoteRef:155] [155: Industry Canada. (2006) Formative Evaluation of the Broadband for Rural & Northern Development ****-Final Report. https://www.ic.gc.ca/eic/site/ae-ve.nsf/vwapj/BroadbandFinalReport.pdf/$file/BroadbandFinalReport.pdf p. iii] 400 communities[footnoteRef:156] [156: ****, ****. (2004). Ontario halts funding for rural broadband, http://www.itworldcanada.com/article/ontario-halts-funding-for-rural-broadband/16758 p. 1.] Communities: “30 remote communities from the northern regions of Manitoba, Quebec and Ontario”[footnoteRef:157] [157: National C-Band Benefit User Group. National C-Band Public Benefit Working Group, http://smart.knet.ca/satellite/ p. 2.] “2003-2004: the number of sites peaked at 8,800 in 2003–2004. As of **** 31st, 2009, there were 3,785 sites across Canada. Approximately 68 percent (68%) of sites are located in rural, remote and First Nations communities”[footnoteRef:158] [158: Industry Canada. Final Evaluation of the Community Access Program (CAP). https://www.ic.gc.ca/eic/site/ae-ve.nsf/eng/03126.html?Open&pv=1 p, 1, 3, 7, 25.] Technology focus

wireless or wired infrastructure[footnoteRef:159] [159: Industry Canada. (2014). Connecting Canadians: Digital Canada 150 – For Canadians and Communities. http://www.ic.gc.ca/eic/site/028.nsf/eng/h_00587.html p. 3.] Extend and augment satellite capacity[footnoteRef:160] [160: Industry Canada. (2014). Connecting Canadians: Digital Canada 150 – For Canadians and Communities. http://www.ic.gc.ca/eic/site/028.nsf/eng/h_00587.html p. 3.] technology neutral[footnoteRef:161] [161: Industry Canada. (2013). Frequently Asked Questions - Broadband Canada/ Connecting Rural Canadians. https://web.archive.org/web/20130630095302/http://www.ic.gc.ca/eic/site/719.nsf/eng/h_00071.html#p2.1 p. 3.] DSL[footnoteRef:162] [162: Industry Canada. (2006) Formative Evaluation of the Broadband for Rural & Northern Development ****-Final Report. https://www.ic.gc.ca/eic/site/ae-ve.nsf/vwapj/BroadbandFinalReport.pdf/$file/BroadbandFinalReport.pdf p. 20.] Cable and/or satellite[footnoteRef:163] [163: Industry Canada. (2006) Formative Evaluation of the Broadband for Rural & Northern Development ****-Final Report. https://www.ic.gc.ca/eic/site/ae-ve.nsf/vwapj/BroadbandFinalReport.pdf/$file/BroadbandFinalReport.pdfp. 38.] Telesat Canada's Anik F3 satellite[footnoteRef:164] [164: Industry Canada. Government of Canada launches National Satellite Initiative to provide Broadband access to Northern and Remote Communities, p. 4.] “high speed broadband (transport) networks, broadband points of presence (PoPs), local access networks, and satellite capacity”[footnoteRef:165] [165: Indian and Northern Affairs Canada. (2010). First Nation Infrastructure Fund (FNIF) Program Guide, http://www.aadnc-aandc.gc.ca/DAM/DAM-INTER-HQ/STAGING/texte-text/prg_1100100010660_eng.pdf p. 10.] Satellite

(cable, DSL, Dial-up and other)[footnoteRef:166] [166: Industry Canada. Final Evaluation of the Community Access Program (CAP). https://www.ic.gc.ca/eic/site/ae-ve.nsf/eng/03126.html?Open&pv=1 p. 11.] Provides resources on “connectivity solutions”, “Consult reports and studies on advanced connectivity options and models” including fixed wireless, fibre-optic, wireless local area network (LAN), terrestrial wireless systems[footnoteRef:167] [167: Industry Canada. (2002). School Net: Connectivity Solutions. http://web.archive.org/web/20021218073536/http://www.schoolnet.ca/home/e/connectivitysolutions.asp] Speeds

Over 99 percent of Canadian households currently have access to basic Internet with speeds of 1.5 Mbps, but newer online technologies typically require faster speeds and higher data transfer rates. [footnoteRef:168] [168: Industry Canada. (2014). Connecting Canadians: Digital Canada 150 – For Canadians and Communities. http://www.ic.gc.ca/eic/site/028.nsf/eng/h_00587.html p. 3.] Up to 5 Mbps[footnoteRef:169] [169: Industry Canada. (2014). Digital Canada 150 – The Strategy. http://www.ic.gc.ca/eic/site/028.nsf/eng/00576.html p. 3, 8]

Targeted 3 to 5 Mbps[footnoteRef:170] [170: Industry Canada. (2014). Connecting Canadians: Digital Canada 150 – For Canadians and Communities. http://www.ic.gc.ca/eic/site/028.nsf/eng/h_00587.html p. 3.] “For the purposes of the program, broadband was defined as a minimum 1.5Mbps.”[footnoteRef:171] [171: Industry Canada. About the Program - Broadband Canada/ Connecting Rural Canadians, https://web.archive.org/web/20130630095244/http://www.ic.gc.ca/eic/site/719.nsf/eng/h_00001.html p. 1.] Within applications, required “information about the current communication infrastructure in the community for the purpose of assessing the level and cost of current connectivity. It includes the na mes of a ny loca l Internet service provider(s) (ISP) a nd the type/level of service provided in each of the project communities (speed, capacity, technology)”[footnoteRef:172] [172: Industry Canada. (2003). Broadband for Rural and Northern Development **** Program: Guidelines for Applicants (Revised May 2003). http://web.archive.org/web/20040609080721/http://broadband.gc.ca/pub/program/guide/bbguide03_e.pdf p. 11] · The satellite technical overview document provided on the NSI website states “Broadcast (up to 45mbps) towards remote and low speed TDMA Inroutes (128kbps) [footnoteRef:173]
 [173: Industry Canada. (2004). Satellite Technical Overview. http://web.archive.org/web/20050829225422/http://broadband.gc.ca/pub/technologies/tech_factsheets/satellite/sat_overview_en.pdf p.84] “high speed broadband (transport) networks”[footnoteRef:174] [174: Indian and Northern Affairs Canada. (2010). First Nation Infrastructure Fund (FNIF) Program Guide. http://www.aadnc-aandc.gc.ca/DAM/DAM-INTER-HQ/STAGING/texte-text/prg_1100100010660_eng.pdf p. 10.] up to 133 Mbit/s[footnoteRef:175] [175: Broadband Communications ****. (2009, **** 10). BCN is announcing upgrades to the satellite network that will provide increased bandwitch capacity to the communities utilizing the C-Band satellite solution. http://www.gobcn.ca/newspage/news-and-press-releases/bcn-announces-upgrades-to-satellite-network p. 1] (47%) of CAP sites have broadband connectivity (at least 1.5 Mbps)[footnoteRef:176] [176: Industry Canada. Final Evaluation of the Community Access Program (CAP). https://www.ic.gc.ca/eic/site/ae-ve.nsf/eng/03126.html?Open&pv=1 p. 25.] “The most prevalent method of access is via a dedicated access line with speeds ranging from 64Kbps, 128Kbps or 1Mbps or faster. These lines are usually connected to the school board’s Wide Area Network, WAN, or directly to the provincial network. The second most popular method of accessing the Internet is via a dial-up modem with speeds ranging between 28-56Kbps. The third method is via a DirecPC with an average available access speed per school of 10Kbps”[footnoteRef:177] [177: Industry Canada. (2000a). SchoolNet’s Online Connectivity Survey Final Report. http://web.archive.org/web/20010513192147/http://www.schoolnet.ca/home/e/Research_Papers/Research/SchoolNet_Research/Final_Survey_Report_2000(English).htm p. 5]

·
· Table 2: Provincial Broadband Programs
Saskatchewan, Ontario and Quebec Broadband Initiatives
CommunityNet
Connect Ontario: Broadband Regional Access (COBRA)
Rural Connections Broadband Program
Eastern Ontario Regional Network (EORN)
Building Broadband in Rural and Northern Ontario Program
Quebec [Provincial Broadband Initiative]
Department Responsible
Saskatchewan Ministry of Education

Led by the Ministry of Enterprise, Opportunity and Innovation (MEOI) in partnership with Management Board Secretariat (MBS), Ministry of Northern Development and **** (MNDM), Ministry of Municipal Affairs and Housing (MMAH).[footnoteRef:178] [178: Connect Ontario. (2003). COBRA Program Summary and Guidelines Overview. Toronto: Ministry of Enterprise, Opportunity. http://web.archive.org/web/20030309053832/http://www.ontariocanada.com/ontcan/en/downloads/connect_ontario/c onnect_ontario_summ_gde_overvw.pdf p. 6.] Ontario Ministry of Agriculture, Food and Rural Affairs (Previously Rural Affairs)

Government of Canada and the Government of Ontario

Eastern Ontario Wardens’ Caucus[footnoteRef:179] [179: Eastern Ontario Regional Network (EORN). (2014). About EORN, http://web.archive.org/web/20130905124502/http://eorn.ca/about-eorn p. 1.] Ministry of Agriculture, Food and Rural Affairs

% of Region with access

**** “affordable, reliable broadband connectivity to about 80 per cent of Ontario’s geographic regions”[footnoteRef:180] [180: Connect Ontario. (2003). COBRA Program Summary and Guidelines Overview. Toronto: Ministry of Enterprise, Opportunity. http://web.archive.org/web/20030309053832/http://www.ontariocanada.com/ontcan/en/downloads/connect_ontario/c onnect_ontario_summ_gde_overvw.pdf, p. 1.] “Already, 1/2 million rural residents and businesses have access to broadband service thanks to projects completed by **** 31, 2012. This number will grow to 550,000 as Rural Connections projects currently under construction come online in early 2013. This number will further increase to over one million when a related project, the Eastern Ontario Regional Network, completes its construction phase in 2014.

1 million rural residents and businesses in Ontario will have access to broadband service when a related project, Ontario Eastern Network, completes its construction phase in 2014”[footnoteRef:181] [181: Ontario Ministry of Rural Affairs. Rural Connections Broadband Program (Rural Connections). http://web.archive.org/web/20140503163232/http://www.omafra.gov.on.ca/english/rural/ruralconnections/broadband.htm p. 1.] “Our mission is to provide higher speeds and bandwidth to at least 95 per cent of homes and businesses in Eastern Ontario”[footnoteRef:182] [182: Eastern Ontario Regional Network (EORN). (2014). About EORN. http://web.archive.org/web/20130905124502/http://eorn.ca/about-eorn, p. 1.] “1 million rural residents and businesses in Ontario will have access to broadband service when EORN completes its construction phase in 2014”[footnoteRef:183] [183: Ontario Ministry of Rural Affairs. Rural Connections Broadband Program (Rural Connections). http://web.archive.org/web/20140503163232/http://www.omafra.gov.on.ca/english/rural/ruralconnections/broadband.htm p. 1.] “Nearly 300,000 people, mostly in rural areas of the region, have no or poor access to the Internet”[footnoteRef:184] [184: Eastern Ontario Regional Network. (2012) Connecting Eastern Ontario to the World, http://iblog.esolutionsgroup.ca/Uploads/49172f12-223b-48eb-afbf-5d48385690af/EORN%20Update%20-January%202012.pdf p. 2.] Regions targeted

“all under-served regions
of rural and northern Ontario. “Exceptions are the Far **** (defined as north of existing commercial forestry operations) and municipalities with populations in excess of 250 people per square kilometre, or those with access to digital telephone lines and/or cable modem service”[footnoteRef:185] [185: Connect Ontario. (2003). COBRA Program Summary and Guidelines Overview. Toronto: Ministry of Enterprise, Opportunity. http://web.archive.org/web/20030309053832/http://www.ontariocanada.com/ontcan/en/downloads/connect_ontario/c onnect_ontario_summ_gde_overvw.pdf p. 4.] regions currently without access to broadband telecommunications services. [footnoteRef:186] [186: Connect Ontario. (2003). COBRA Program Summary and Guidelines Overview. Toronto: Ministry of Enterprise, Opportunity. http://web.archive.org/web/20030309053832/http://www.ontariocanada.com/ontcan/en/downloads/connect_ontario/c onnect_ontario_summ_gde_overvw.pdf p. 7.] Regions that are eligible for Business Plan Development Funding are generally defined as areas without an anchor city (population greater than 50,000); and, a population density of less than
50 people/km2.[footnoteRef:187] [187: Connect Ontario. (2003). COBRA Program Summary and Guidelines Overview. Toronto: Ministry of Enterprise, Opportunity. http://web.archive.org/web/20030309053832/http://www.ontariocanada.com/ontcan/en/downloads/connect_ontario/c onnect_ontario_summ_gde_overvw.pdf p. 9.] Municipalities in rural south western and central Ontario are eligible to apply to this intake of Rural Connections.

However, communities and lower tier municipalities with a population of less than 100,000 in the GTA or large urban areas identified above are eligible to apply, providing the broadband infrastructure benefits rural communities.[footnoteRef:188] [188: Ontario Ministry of Agriculture, Food and Rural Affairs. Rural Connections Broadband Program Application Guideline Intake. http://web.archive.org/web/20100805063023/http://www.omafra.gov.on.ca/english/rural/ruralconnections/guideline.htm p. 3, 2.] The project will serve the following First Nations and Metis communities:

Alderville First Nation
Curve **** First Nation
Hiawatha First Nation
Mohawks of Akwesasne
Mohawks of the Bay of Quinte
Algonquins of Pikwakanagan
Algonquins of Ontario

Metis of Ontario[footnoteRef:189] [189: Eastern Ontario Regional Network (EORN). About EORN – First Nations, http://web.archive.org/web/20130118022309/http://eorn.ca/about-eorn/first-nations/ p. 1.] Quebec's strategy seeks primarily to provide Quebec with a network

providing Internet service of high speed in all regions of Quebec by

2020.[footnoteRef:190] [190: Government of Quebec. (2010, **** 5). Budget 2011-2012. http://www.budget.finances.gouv.qc.ca/Budget/2011-2012/fr/documents/PlanBudgetaire.pdf p. 97] It is expected

that 20% of funds will be invested in various suburban areas

Quebec, while the remaining amount will be spent in the more remote areas. [footnoteRef:191] [191: Government of Quebec. (2010, **** 5). Budget 2011-2012 http://www.budget.finances.gouv.qc.ca/Budget/2011-2012/fr/documents/PlanBudgetaire.pdf p. 97] Years in operation

2001 – 2014

2003-2004[footnoteRef:192] [192: ****, ****. (2004). Ontario halts funding for rural broadband. http://www.itworldcanada.com/article/ontario-halts-funding-for-rural-broadband/16758 p. 1.] Projected:

2003-2006[footnoteRef:193] [193: Connect Ontario. (2003). COBRA Program Summary and Guidelines Overview. Toronto: Ministry of Enterprise, Opportunity. http://web.archive.org/web/20030309053832/http://www.ontariocanada.com/ontcan/en/downloads/connect_ontario/c onnect_ontario_summ_gde_overvw.pdf p. 1.] 2007 - 2014[footnoteRef:194] [194: Ontario Ministry of Rural Affairs. Rural Connections Broadband Program (Rural Connections). http://web.archive.org/web/20140503163232/http://www.omafra.gov.on.ca/english/rural/ruralconnections/broadband.htm p. 1.] 2009[footnoteRef:195] - 2014[footnoteRef:196] [195: Eastern Ontario Regional Network (EORN). (2010). Eastern Ontario Regional Network Backgrounder. http://news.ontario.ca/omafra/en/2010/08/eastern-ontario-broadband-network-backgrounder.html p. 1.] [196: Eastern Ontario Regional Network (EORN). (2013). Timeline. http://web.archive.org/web/20130626233117/http://eorn.ca/about-eorn/timeline/ p. 1.] 2009 - 2011[footnoteRef:197] [197: Ontario Ministry of Agriculture, Food and Rural Affairs. Building Broadband in Rural and Northern Ontario, p. 1.]

2011 – 2020[footnoteRef:198] [198: Government of Quebec. (2010, **** 5). Budget 2011-2012. http://www.budget.finances.gouv.qc.ca/Budget/2011-2012/fr/documents/PlanBudgetaire.pdf p. 97] Money spent

$71 million[footnoteRef:199] [199: Government of Saskatchewan. CommunityNet Launched. News Release. http://www.gov.sk.ca/news?newsId=f5bfd40f-2157-4ee6-bbdd-02dea524f16 p. 1.] $6 million from the (Federal Government) [footnoteRef:200] [200: Government of Saskatchewan. Budget Address, p. 10.]

$55 Million[footnoteRef:201] [201: Poschman, F. & ****, W. Thoughts on a **** Framework for Ontario’s Industrial Development, p. 19.]
$ 31.4 Million in 54 rural broadband projects

[footnoteRef:202] [202: Ontario Ministry of Rural Affairs. Rural Connections Broadband Program (Rural Connections). http://web.archive.org/web/20140503163232/http://www.omafra.gov.on.ca/english/rural/ruralconnections/broadband.htm p. 1.] “The telecom sector responded to this investment in rural broadband and commonly took on up to 2/3 of the cost of each municipal project … investing $2 for every $1 invested by the province”[footnoteRef:203] [203: Ontario Ministry of Rural Affairs. Rural Connections Broadband Program (Rural Connections). http://web.archive.org/web/20140503163232/http://www.omafra.gov.on.ca/english/rural/ruralconnections/broadband.htm p. 1.] $170 Million[footnoteRef:204] [204: Eastern Ontario Regional Network (EORN). (2010). (Eastern Ontario Regional Network Backgrounder. http://news.ontario.ca/omafra/en/2010/08/eastern-ontario-broadband-network-backgrounder.html p. 1.] $32.75 million[footnoteRef:205] [205: Ontario Ministry of Agriculture, Food and Rural Affairs. Building Broadband in Rural and Northern Ontario, p. 1.]

$900 million
The funds will finance
investment, particularly in the fiber optic detection equipment, the
connectors networks and telecommunications infrastructure.
To this end, additional funding of $ 1.1 million in 2011-2012, of
$ 4.5 million in 2012-2013 and $ 9.0 million in 2013-2014
will be awarded by Treasury Board Secretariat. Credits required for
2011-2012 will be filled at the same Fund.
Chair of Treasury Board will further clarify the details of the

strategy for the digital economy.[footnoteRef:206] [206: Government of Quebec. (2010, **** 5). Budget 2011-2012. http://www.budget.finances.gouv.qc.ca/Budget/2011-2012/fr/documents/PlanBudgetaire.pdf p. 97] Approx. total money spent to date

$71000000
$126000000
$157400000
$327400000
$360150000
$1274750000
Type of connection
extend high-speed network

and Internet access to public institutions in 366 communities. Over the next three years CommunityNet will link 834 educational facilities, 310 health facilities, 86 First Nations schools and 256 government offices[footnoteRef:207] [207: Government of Saskatchewan. CommunityNet Launched. News Release. http://www.gov.sk.ca/news?newsId=f5bfd40f-2157-4ee6-bbdd-02dea524f16 p. 1.] The aggregating of telecommunications infrastructure demand is expected to foster improved connectivity access for homes and businesses in small and rural communities and regions[footnoteRef:208] [208: Connect Ontario. (2003). COBRA Program Summary and Guidelines Overview. Toronto: Ministry of Enterprise, Opportunity. http://web.archive.org/web/20030309053832/http://www.ontariocanada.com/ontcan/en/downloads/connect_ontario/c onnect_ontario_summ_gde_overvw.pdf p. 6.] Municipalities and Communities [footnoteRef:209] [209: Ontario Ministry of Agriculture, Food and Rural Affairs. Rural Connections Broadband Program Application Guideline Intake p. 3, http://web.archive.org/web/20100805063023/http://www.omafra.gov.on.ca/english/rural/ruralconnections/guideline.htm 2.] Households[footnoteRef:210] [210: Eastern Ontario Regional Network (EORN). About EORN, http://web.archive.org/web/20130905124502/http://eorn.ca/about-eorn p. 1.]

rural and northern families and businesses[footnoteRef:211] [211: Ontario Ministry of Agriculture, Food and Rural Affairs. Building Broadband in Rural and Northern Ontario, p. 1.] No. of households

“A 5,500-km network of new and existing fibre optic cable, with 160 new access points for Internet Service Providers.”[footnoteRef:212] [212: Eastern Ontario Regional Network (EORN). About EORN, http://web.archive.org/web/20130905124502/http://eorn.ca/about-eorn p. 1.] No. of communities

public institutions in 366 communities.[footnoteRef:213] [213: Government of Saskatchewan. CommunityNet Launched. News Release. http://www.gov.sk.ca/news?newsId=f5bfd40f-2157-4ee6-bbdd-02dea524f16 p. 1.] Technology focus

Fibre optic, digital subscriber line (DSL), two-way satellite[footnoteRef:214] [214: Government of Saskatchewan. CommunityNet Connections, http://www.education.gov.sk.ca/CommunityNet-connections p. 1.] There are three types of CommunityNet services available depending on location as defined by SaskTel and SCN. The first type of service utilizes a fibre optic line coming to your building. This can provide a 10Mb/s or 100Mb/s service, and is typically only available in major centres. The second type is a digital subscriber line (DSL) based service. This service uses a phone line that comes into your building. Speeds of DSL based services range from a low of 384kb/s up to 4Mb/s. The speeds may be limited by the distance from the site to the nearest SaskTel office. Where a DSL based service is not available, a third option, a two-way satellite based service is available. This type of service requires a satellite dish and a special receiver to decode the signals. The current speed on the satellite network is 256kb/s by 640kb/s, depending on location size. [footnoteRef:215] [215: Government of Saskatchewan. CommunityNet Connections, http://www.education.gov.sk.ca/CommunityNet-connections p. 1.] Potential: ADSL (high speed telephone line), cable modem, fibre and wireless[footnoteRef:216] [216: Connect Ontario. (2003). COBRA Program Summary and Guidelines Overview. Toronto: Ministry of Enterprise, Opportunity. http://web.archive.org/web/20030309053832/http://www.ontariocanada.com/ontcan/en/downloads/connect_ontario/c onnect_ontario_summ_gde_overvw.pdf] “Pursue a completely technology-neutral policy that considers all options”[footnoteRef:217] [217: Connect Ontario. COBRA Program Summary and Guidelines Overview. http://web.archive.org/web/20030309053832/http://www.ontariocanada.com/ontcan/en/downloads/connect_ontario/c onnect_ontario_summ_gde_overvw.pdf Toronto: Ministry of Enterprise, Opportunity, p. 3.] Project is “Technology neutral […] the procurement document does not specify a pre-determined technology, thus allowing the Internet Service Providers to propose the best network solution based on their experience and knowledge of the area to be served”[footnoteRef:218] [218: Ontario Ministry of Agriculture, Food and Rural Affairs. Rural Connections Broadband Program Application Guideline Intake p. 3,. http://web.archive.org/web/20100805063023/http://www.omafra.gov.on.ca/english/rural/ruralconnections/guideline.htm 8.] “A 5,500-km network of new and existing fibre optic cable, with 160 new access points for Internet Service Providers.

High-speed Internet services for residents and businesses through wired, wireless or satellite technology, depending on the best fit for the area”[footnoteRef:219] [219: Eastern Ontario Regional Network (EORN). About EORN, http://web.archive.org/web/20130905124502/http://eorn.ca/about-eorn p. 1.] “Building a high-capacity scalable fibre optic backbone throughout the region.[footnoteRef:220] [220: Eastern Ontario Regional Network. Connecting Eastern Ontario to the World, http://iblog.esolutionsgroup.ca/Uploads/49172f12-223b-48eb-afbf-5d48385690af/EORN%20Update%20-January%202012.pdf p. 2.] Internet access via satellite technology will be used in areas with low population density or where difficult topography means that neither wired nor wireless options are possible.[footnoteRef:221] [221: Eastern Ontario Regional Network. Connecting Eastern Ontario to the World, http://iblog.esolutionsgroup.ca/Uploads/49172f12-223b-48eb-afbf-5d48385690af/EORN%20Update%20-January%202012.pdf p. 5.] Speeds

Fibre optic: 10Mb/s or 100Mb/s
DSL: 384kb/s up to 4Mb/s.
Satellite: 256kb/s by 640kb/s[footnoteRef:222] [222: Government of Saskatchewan. CommunityNet Connections, http://www.education.gov.sk.ca/CommunityNet-connections p. 1.]
The Learning VPN currently has a 200Mb/s connection to the Internet[footnoteRef:223] [223: Government of Sakatchewan. CommunityNet for the Learning Sector, p. 1.]
· provide a minimum of 1.5 mbps for

· institutional users [footnoteRef:224] [224: Connect Ontario. COBRA Program Summary and Guidelines Overview. http://web.archive.org/web/20030309053832/http://www.ontariocanada.com/ontcan/en/downloads/connect_ontario/c onnect_ontario_summ_gde_overvw.pdf Toronto: Ministry of Enterprise, Opportunity,, p. 4.] “minimum download speed of 1.5 megabits per second”[footnoteRef:225] [225: Ontario Ministry of Agriculture, Food and Rural Affairs. Rural Connections Broadband Program Application Guideline Intake. http://web.archive.org/web/20100805063023/http://www.omafra.gov.on.ca/english/rural/ruralconnections/guideline.htm p. 3, 1] “EORN’s goal is to push transfer rates up to 10 Mbps or more for as much of the region as is financially possible”[footnoteRef:226] [226: Eastern Ontario Regional Network (EORN). Brochure – FAQs, p. 1.] Each PoP will have a network capacity of 10 Gbps and will be scalable to 100 Gbps as demand grows.[footnoteRef:227] [227: Eastern Ontario Regional Network. Connecting Eastern Ontario to the World, http://iblog.esolutionsgroup.ca/Uploads/49172f12-223b-48eb-afbf-5d48385690af/EORN%20Update%20-January%202012.pdf p. 4.] Internet service of high speed.[footnoteRef:228] [228: Government of Quebec. (2010, **** 5). Budget 2011-2012. http://www.budget.finances.gouv.qc.ca/Budget/2011-2012/fr/documents/PlanBudgetaire.pdf p. 97] Alberta Initiatives

Alberta Supernet
Alberta Rural Connections: Community Broadband Infrastructure **** Program
Final Mile Rural Community Initiative (FMRCI)
Phase 1: Rural Community Program
(FMRCI)
Phase 2: Central Alberta Satellite Solution
(FMRCI)
Phase 3
(FMRCI)
Phase 4: “Infill program”
Department Responsible
Government of Alberta
Service Alberta and Agriculture and Rural Development
Service Alberta and Agriculture and Rural Development
% of Region with access

“Can be accessed by 85% of Albertans”[footnoteRef:229] [229: Service Alberta. Alberta SuperNet. http://web.archive.org/web/20130124173454/http://www.servicealberta.gov.ab.ca/AlbertaSuperNet.cfm p. 3] “Currently, nearly 98% of Alberta households (HH) have access to a minimum of 1.5 Mbps Internet service” [footnoteRef:230] [230: Service Alberta Rural Internet, https://www.servicealberta.ca/2127.cfm p. 1.] “Currently (2012), nearly 98% of Alberta households (HH) have access to a minimum of 1.5 Mbps Internet service”[footnoteRef:231] [231: Service Alberta Rural Internet, https://www.servicealberta.ca/2127.cfm p. 1.] In January 2012, approximately 94 percent of Albertans had access to high-speed Internet services.

goal of 98 percent access[footnoteRef:232] [232: Service Alberta. Final Mile Rural Connectivity Initiative, http://www.vitel.ca/Whitepapers/Broadband/Final%20Mile%20Rural%20Connectivity%20Initiative.pdf p. 1.] This program is available to over 4,300 households, bringing the total Albertans able to access high-speed Internet up to 97%.[footnoteRef:233] [233: Service Alberta. (2014).Central Alberta Satellite Solution. http://www.servicealberta.ca/CASS_Search.cfm p. 2] Regions targeted

Communities including rural gas utility franchise areas, counties[footnoteRef:234] [234: Alberta Agriculture and Rural Development. (2009) Rural Connections: Community Broadband Infrastructure **** Program Approved Projects, p. 1-4.] Extend coverage to rural and remote Albertan households currently without access to these services”[footnoteRef:235] [235: Service Alberta. Final Mile Rural Connectivity Initiative. http://www.vitel.ca/Whitepapers/Broadband/Final%20Mile%20Rural%20Connectivity%20Initiative.pdf p. 1.] “Projects must occur in a rural community defined as any Alberta community outside of the 27 urban centers that make up the Alberta SuperNet base area communities”[footnoteRef:236] [236: Alberta Agriculture and Rural Development. (2012). Final Mile Rural Connectivity Program Guidelines and Criteria. Final Mile Rural Connectivity Program, p. 1] “Unserviced locations are areas that include Alberta households that do not have access to high-speed Internet service at a minimum speed of 1.5Mbps download” [footnoteRef:237] [237: Alberta Agriculture and Rural Development. (2012). Final Mile Rural Connectivity Program Guidelines and Criteria. Final Mile Rural Connectivity Program, p. 1] helps eligible residents in rural and remote areas connect to high-speed Internet

thanks to satellite technology and waived installation distance costs”[footnoteRef:238] [238: Service Alberta. Final Mile Rural Connectivity Initiative. http://www.vitel.ca/Whitepapers/Broadband/Final%20Mile%20Rural%20Connectivity%20Initiative.pdf p. 1.] “This program is geared towards families living in low-density, remote areas of Alberta”[footnoteRef:239] [239: ****, ****. (2013, Feb 4). Satellite Internet program to benefit central Albertans. http://www.albertafarmexpress.ca/2013/02/04/satellite-internet-program-to-benefit-central-albertans/ p. 1] **** said there’s been a shift from programs with “broad strokes” to efforts like the Final Mile that are striving to “pinpoint” areas that need help to get access. “I think previous programs, they were looking to connect a higher volume of people because at that time there were more communities, larger communities that didn’t have access,” he said. [footnoteRef:240] [240: ****, ****. (2013, Feb 4). Satellite Internet program to benefit central Albertans. http://www.albertafarmexpress.ca/2013/02/04/satellite-internet-program-to-benefit-central-albertans/ p. 1] the extreme north and south of the province[footnoteRef:241] [241: Vitel. (n.d.). Final Mile Rural Connectivity Initiative. http://www.vitel.ca/Whitepapers/Broadband/Final%20Mile%20Rural%20Connectivity%20Initiative.pdf p. 1] Years in operation

2001 – 2005 [footnoteRef:242] [242: ****, **** I. (2014) Local Communities and **** Rule: Extending the Alberta SuperNet to Unserved Areas. Journal of Community Informatics 10(2). http://ci-journal.net/index.php/ciej/article/view/1002/1087 p. 1.] 2009 - 2011

2012 - Present
2012 - Present
2012 - Present
2012 - Present
Money spent
$295 million
Government of Alberta invested $193 million

Bell Canada invested $102 million[footnoteRef:243] [243: Service Alberta. Alberta SuperNet Business Model. http://web.archive.org/web/20130122155858/http://www.servicealberta.gov.ab.ca/1577.cfm p. 2.] $10.4 million in grant funding, to 34 projects[footnoteRef:244] [244: Alberta Agriculture and Rural Development. (2014). Rural Development Projects and Initiatives.http://www1.agric.gov.ab.ca/$department/deptdocs.nsf/all/csi12105 p. 1] $5 million [footnoteRef:245] [245: Vitel. (n.d.). Final Mile Rural Connectivity Initiative. http://www.vitel.ca/Whitepapers/Broadband/Final%20Mile%20Rural%20Connectivity%20Initiative.pdf p. 1] up to $900,000 [footnoteRef:246] [246: Vitel. (n.d.). Final Mile Rural Connectivity Initiative. http://www.vitel.ca/Whitepapers/Broadband/Final%20Mile%20Rural%20Connectivity%20Initiative.pdf p. 1] $9.5 million committed[footnoteRef:247] [247: Vitel. (n.d.). Final Mile Rural Connectivity Initiative. http://www.vitel.ca/Whitepapers/Broadband/Final%20Mile%20Rural%20Connectivity%20Initiative.pdf p. 1] Approx. total money spent to date

$295000000
$305400000
$310400000
$311300000
$320800000
Type of connection

Communities [footnoteRef:248] [248: Service Alberta. Alberta Supernet. http://web.archive.org/web/20130124173454/http://www.servicealberta.gov.ab.ca/AlbertaSuperNet.cfm p. 3] Communities[footnoteRef:249] [249: Alberta Agriculture and Rural Development (2009). Rural Connections: Community Broadband Infrastructure **** Program Approved Projects. http://www1.agric.gov.ab.ca/$Department/deptdocs.nsf/all/csi12826 p. 1-4.] Households[footnoteRef:250] [250: Service Alberta. Final Mile Rural Connectivity Initiative. http://www.vitel.ca/Whitepapers/Broadband/Final%20Mile%20Rural%20Connectivity%20Initiative.pdf p. 1.] Households[footnoteRef:251] [251: ****, ****. (2013, Feb 4). Satellite Internet program to benefit central Albertans. http://www.albertafarmexpress.ca/2013/02/04/satellite-internet-program-to-benefit-central-albertans/ p. 4] No. of households

About 43,600 rural Alberta households are currently without access to high-speed Internet service. [footnoteRef:252] [252: Vitel. (n.d.). Final Mile Rural Connectivity Initiative. http://www.vitel.ca/Whitepapers/Broadband/Final%20Mile%20Rural%20Connectivity%20Initiative.pdf p. 1] Over 4,300 households[footnoteRef:253] [253: Service Alberta. (2014).Central Alberta Satellite Solution. http://www.servicealberta.ca/CASS_Search.cfm p. 2]

No. of communities

“Serves 429 Alberta communities – 27 urban (2 major cities) and 402 rural[footnoteRef:254] [254: Service Alberta. Alberta Supernet. http://web.archive.org/web/20130124173454/http://www.servicealberta.gov.ab.ca/AlbertaSuperNet.cfm p. 3] 34 approved projects for various communities[footnoteRef:255] [255: Alberta Agriculture and Rural Development (2009). Rural Connections: Community Broadband Infrastructure **** Program Approved Projects. http://www1.agric.gov.ab.ca/$Department/deptdocs.nsf/all/csi12826 p. 1-4.] Technology focus

fibre cables and towers[footnoteRef:256] [256: Service Alberta. Alberta Supernet. http://web.archive.org/web/20130124173454/http://www.servicealberta.gov.ab.ca/AlbertaSuperNet.cfm p. 2] “IP-based network 


Fibre technology to deliver high bandwidth 

MPLS and QoS capability”[footnoteRef:257] [257: Service Alberta. Alberta Supernet: The Network (Technical Information), p. 2.]

Wireless broadband networks[footnoteRef:258] [258: Alberta Agriculture and Rural Development. (2009). Rural Connections: Community Broadband Infrastructure **** Program Approved Projects. http://www1.agric.gov.ab.ca/$Department/deptdocs.nsf/all/csi12826 p. 1-4.] infrastructure such as towers and fibre optic cable, installation costs, and other related expenses [footnoteRef:259] [259: Vitel. (n.d.). Final Mile Rural Connectivity Initiative. http://www.vitel.ca/Whitepapers/Broadband/Final%20Mile%20Rural%20Connectivity%20Initiative.pdf p. 1] 4G Satellite[footnoteRef:260] [260: Service Alberta. (2014) Central Alberta Satellite Solution. http://www.servicealberta.ca/CASS_Search.cfm p. 1.]

Speeds

“service options from 0.256 Kb/sec–800 Mb/sec and evolving”[footnoteRef:261] [261: Service Alberta. Alberta Supernet Benefits and Use. http://web.archive.org/web/20130122160433/http://www.servicealberta.gov.ab.ca/1557.cfm p. 2] (funding and assessment criteria): Demonstrated infrastructure scalability to offer services at 3.0 and 5.0 Mbps speeds[footnoteRef:262] [262: Alberta Agriculture and Rural Development. (2012). Final Mile Rural Connectivity Program Guidelines and Criteria. Final Mile Rural Connectivity Program, p. 1] Manitoba Programs

Central Manitoba Broadband
Parkland Telecommunications network
% of Region with access
Regions targeted

Central Plains & Heartland Regions[footnoteRef:263] [263: Aboriginal network.(2015). Central Manitoba Broadband (CMB). http://aboriginalnetwork.ca/projects/central-manitoba-broadband-cmb p. 1] “providing broadband services to under-served and/or un-served communities that are currently without broadband access”[footnoteRef:264] [264: Manitoba E-Association. (2015). Parkland Telecommunications Network. http://mb.e-association.ca/cim/301C361_562T30371.dhtm p. 1.] Years in operation

Oct 2007 – Dec 31, 2008 [footnoteRef:265] [265: Aboriginal network.(2015). Central Manitoba Broadband (CMB). http://aboriginalnetwork.ca/projects/central-manitoba-broadband-cmb p. 2] 2005-2007[footnoteRef:266] [266: Manitoba E-Association. (2015). Parkland Telecommunications Network. http://mb.e-association.ca/cim/301C361_562T30371.dhtm p. 1.]

Money spent
$2.6-million [footnoteRef:267] [267: Aboriginal network.(2015). Central Manitoba Broadband (CMB). http://aboriginalnetwork.ca/projects/central-manitoba-broadband-cmb p. 3]

The success of this project was clearly evident in the financial support from the MRIF program. In addition, there was a vast amount of support provided from the MAFRI and STEM departments, community champions, project management team and local/regional Economic Development personnel. [footnoteRef:268] [268: Aboriginal network.(2015). Central Manitoba Broadband (CMB). http://aboriginalnetwork.ca/projects/central-manitoba-broadband-cmb p. 3] $4 million [footnoteRef:269] [269: Manitoba E-Association. (2015). Parkland Telecommunications Network. http://mb.e-association.ca/cim/301C361_562T30371.dhtm p. 1.]

Approx. total money spent to date
$2600000
$6600000
Type of connection
Communities[footnoteRef:270] [270: Aboriginal network.(2015). Central Manitoba Broadband (CMB). http://aboriginalnetwork.ca/projects/central-manitoba-broadband-cmb p. 3]
Communities[footnoteRef:271] [271: Manitoba E-Association. (2015). Parkland Telecommunications Network. http://mb.e-association.ca/cim/301C361_562T30371.dhtm p. 1]
No. of households
No. of communities

This support ensured that nine (9) Rural Municipalities (RMs), one (1) Francophone Village and four (4) First Nations communities were provided with the ability to access high speed Internet services. As a result 30 new communities were provided access to broadband services. [footnoteRef:272] [272: Aboriginal network.(2015). Central Manitoba Broadband (CMB). http://aboriginalnetwork.ca/projects/central-manitoba-broadband-cmb p. 3] invested in Manitoba’s urban, rural and northern municipal infrastructure to improve the quality of life of all citizens and build the foundation for sustained long-term economic growth in the 21st century.

This support ensured that 50 + communities in the Parkland Region were provided with broadband services thus providing important access to under-served and/or un-served communities. There were eight (8) Aboriginal and Northern Affairs and five (5) first Nations communities that also formed part of this broadband success story.

Coverage provided available access to 27,000 residents, 1800 businesses, 50 schools and healthcare institutions.[footnoteRef:273] [273: Manitoba E-Association. (2015). Parkland Telecommunications Network. http://mb.e-association.ca/cim/301C361_562T30371.dhtm p. 1] Technology focus

Wireless[footnoteRef:274] [274: Aboriginal network.(2015). Central Manitoba Broadband (CMB). http://aboriginalnetwork.ca/projects/central-manitoba-broadband-cmb p. 1]

Wireless high speed Internet allows for a wider coverage area reaching far beyond the footprint of other Broadband options and is important in ensuring that rural residents and businesses in rural Manitoba are part of the technology advances[footnoteRef:275] [275: Manitoba E-Association. (2015). Parkland Telecommunications Network. http://mb.e-association.ca/cim/301C361_562T30371.dhtm p. 1.] Speeds

High-speed Internet service [footnoteRef:276] [276: Aboriginal network.(2015). Central Manitoba Broadband (CMB). http://aboriginalnetwork.ca/projects/central-manitoba-broadband-cmb p. 1] Wireless high speed Internet[footnoteRef:277] [277: Manitoba E-Association. (2015). Parkland Telecommunications Network. http://mb.e-association.ca/cim/301C361_562T30371.dhtm p. 1.] British Columbia Initiatives

Community Network Infrastructure **** Program
Connecting Citizens **** Program
Kelowna, B.C.
Connecting Communities Agreement (CCA)
Connecting British Columbia Agreement (CBCA)
Schools Fibre Upgrade Program
Related project

This new program follows on the success of the Community Networking Infrastructure **** Program, which has already helped 57 rural and remote B.C. communities achieve "last mile" service[footnoteRef:278] [278: In the Air Networks (ITAN). (2014). Introducing the Connecting Citizens **** Program. http://www.intheairnetworks.com/wireless-news p. 1] The Connecting British Columbia Agreement (CBCA) builds on the success of the previous Connecting Communities Agreement (CCA)[footnoteRef:279] [279: Telus. (2014). Partnership Details. http://about.telus.com/community/english/about_us/for_our_customers/connecting_bc_program/partnership_details p. 1] Department Responsible

Government of British Columbia, Ministry of Labour and Human Services[footnoteRef:280] [280: In the Air Networks. (2014). Introducing the Connecting Citizens **** Program, p. 2.] Government of B.C (and Telus, local health regions, schools and crown corporations) [footnoteRef:281] [281: Telus. (2014). Connecting BC - Background. http://about.telus.com/community/english/about_us/for_our_customers/connecting_bc_program/background p. 1.] Government of B.C. and Telus

British Columbia Ministry of Education
% of Region with access

93% of the population of BC has access to broadband[footnoteRef:282] [282: Ministry of Citizens’ services and open government. (2013).Network BC Update. 2013 BC Broadband Conference.] So far, 93% of B.C. residents are connected. [footnoteRef:283] [283: Government of British Columbia. (2014). Network BC: Broadband Connectivity Map - Information Technology Services. http://www2.gov.bc.ca/gov/topic.page?id=07995D6F9B7947E2AD602A101FBCAFA6 p. 1] “TELUS’ current service area represents approximately 97% of the population”

Work toward the goal to increase the current level of connectivity in the province from 93 per cent to 97 per cent through various programs and commitments such as the Deferral Account program managed by TELUS.
[footnoteRef:284] [284: Telus. (2014). Partnership Details. http://about.telus.com/community/english/about_us/for_our_customers/connecting_bc_program/partnership_details p. 1] Remaining 7% - approximately 300,000 people:

4% on the outskirts of connected communities to be addressed through the Province/TELUS Connecting British Columbia Agreement

3% in areas of sparse population (farmland, along rural routes) through a new broadband satellite initiative [footnoteRef:285] [285: 2013 Broadband BC Conference. (2013). Network BC Update, p. 2] Regions targeted

Funding was also used to reduce the cost of Internet access for local Internet service providers to expand coverage in remote areas[footnoteRef:286] [286: Government of British Columbia. (2014). Programs and Services : Broadband for B.C. http://www2.gov.bc.ca/gov/topic.page?id=3AFF3E3DA16B4BA28C5E81FF5EF720DF p. 2] “Community refers broadly to any town, village, suburb, subdivision, rural route or coverage area where service will be offered to citizens”[footnoteRef:287] [287: In the Air Networks. (2014) Introducing the Connecting Citizens **** Program. http://www.intheairnetworks.com/wireless-news p. 3] Also serves local homes and businesses[footnoteRef:288] [288: In the Air Networks. (2014). Introducing the Connecting Citizens **** Program. http://www.intheairnetworks.com/wireless-news p. 1] ·

Years in operation

2005 - 2006[footnoteRef:289] [289: Rajabiun, R., & Middleton, C. (2013). Rural Broadband Development in Canada’s Provinces: An Overview of Policy Approaches. Journal of Rural and Community Development 8(2). http://www.jrcd.ca/viewarticle.php?id=1140 p. 15.] 2008 – 2011

2005 (April) – 2010 [footnoteRef:290] [290: Telus. (2014). Connecting BC - Background. http://about.telus.com/community/english/about_us/for_our_customers/connecting_bc_program/background p. 1.] 2011 – 2021 (projected)[footnoteRef:291] [291: Telus. (2014). Partnership Details. http://about.telus.com/community/english/about_us/for_our_customers/connecting_bc_program/partnership_details p. 1.] Money spent

Over $6.83 M invested in 148 projects to connect over 210 locales[footnoteRef:292] [292: 2013 Broadband BC Conference. (2013). Network BC Update, p. 4]

grants of up to $50,000 per community will be distributed by my ministry through Network BC. [footnoteRef:293] [293: In the Air Networks (ITAN). (2014). Introducing the Connecting Citizens **** Program. http://www.intheairnetworks.com/wireless-news p. 1] Funded by Telus[footnoteRef:294] (amount unknown at this time) [294: Telus. (2014). Connecting BC - Background. http://about.telus.com/community/english/about_us/for_our_customers/connecting_bc_program/background p. 1.] Funded by Telus (amount unknown at this time)[footnoteRef:295] [295: Telus. (2014). Connecting BC - Background. http://about.telus.com/community/english/about_us/for_our_customers/connecting_bc_program/background p. 1] Approx. total money spent to date

$6830000
$6830000
$6830000
Type of connection
Communities

rural and remote communities, local homes and businesses”[footnoteRef:296] [296: In the Air Networks. Introducing the Connecting Citizens **** Program. http://www.intheairnetworks.com/wireless-news p. 1] communities[footnoteRef:297] [297: Telus. (2014). Connecting BC - Background. http://about.telus.com/community/english/about_us/for_our_customers/connecting_bc_program/background p. 1] Communities

Students
No. of households
No. of communities

57 rural and remote B.C. communities[footnoteRef:298] [298: In the Air Networks. (2014). Introducing the Connecting Citizens **** Program. http://www.intheairnetworks.com/wireless-news p. 1] 119 communities[footnoteRef:299] [299: Telus. (2014). Expanding Community Connectivity. http://about.telus.com/community/english/about_us/for_our_customers/c...cting_bc_program/partnership_details/expanding_community_connectivity p. 1.] Communities to provide high speed Internet to homes, business, schools and hospitals[footnoteRef:300] [300: Telus. (2014). Expanding Community Connectivity. http://about.telus.com/community/english/about_us/for_our_customers/c...cting_bc_program/partnership_details/expanding_community_connectivity p. 1.] 188 of 437 schools upgraded from copper to fibre as of **** 2013[footnoteRef:301] [301: 2013 Broadband BC Conference. (2013). Network BC Update, p. 6]

Upgrade approximately 450 schools to high speed fibre-optics[footnoteRef:302] [302: Government of British Columbia, Ministry of Education. (2013). BC’s Education Plan – Robust IT Infrastructure. http://www.bcedplan.ca/actions/technology.php#tabs-4 p. 1] Technology focus

Fibre[footnoteRef:303] [303: Government of British Columbia & TELUS. Connecting British Columbia Agreement between TELUS Communications Company and Her Majesty the Queen in Right of the Province of British Columbia. http://www.cio.gov.bc.ca/local/cio/strategic_partnerships/cbca.pdfp. 89.] “Maintain Internet gateways or points-of-presence in 119 central offices throughout the province. [footnoteRef:304] [304: Government of British Columbia & TELUS. (2011). Connecting British Columbia Agreement between TELUS Communications Company and Her Majesty the Queen in Right of the Province of British Columbia. http://www.cio.gov.bc.ca/local/cio/strategic_partnerships/cbca.pdf p. 4.] Fibre optic (replace copper)[footnoteRef:305] [305: 2013 Broadband BC Conference. (2013). Network BC Update, p. 6]

Speeds

Varied: minimum commitment 1-40 mbps[footnoteRef:306] [306: Government of British Columbia & TELUS. (2011). Connecting British Columbia Agreement between TELUS Communications Company and Her Majesty the Queen in Right of the Province of British Columbia. http://www.cio.gov.bc.ca/local/cio/strategic_partnerships/cbca.pdf p. 89.] Increase Internet speeds up to ten-fold in many areas connected under a previous agreement between the Province and TELUS. 
[footnoteRef:307] [307: Telus. (2014). Partnership Details. http://about.telus.com/community/english/about_us/for_our_customers/connecting_bc_program/partnership_details p. 1] expanded service of 30 Mbps and 100 Mbps to 70 and 62 out of 119 communities[footnoteRef:308] [308: Government of British Columbia & TELUS. (2011). Connecting British Columbia Agreement between TELUS Communications Company and Her Majesty the Queen in Right of the Province of British Columbia. http://www.cio.gov.bc.ca/local/cio/strategic_partnerships/cbca.pdf p. B1 – B4 ] Eastern Provinces Initiatives

Rural Broadband Initiative (RBI)
New Brunswick Broadband Project/Initiative
Partnership with **** Explore Inc
Rural Action Plan
Broadband for Rural Nova Scotia (BRNS)
Department Responsible
Newfoundland and Labrador
Department of Innovation, Business and Rural Development

New Brunswick Ministry of Business and **** Explore Inc[footnoteRef:309] [309: Communications New Brunswick. (2009). Government to extend high-speed Internet access. http://www.gnb.ca/cnb/news/bnb/2009e0102bn.htm p. 1.] Government of Prince Edward Island

Nova Scotia
Department of Fisheries, Aquaculture and Rural Development
% of Region with access

“on target to reach approximately 95 per cent coverage for the province by 2014”[footnoteRef:310] [310: Government of Newfoundland and Laborador News Release. (2013). Energizing the Provincial Economy Through Expanded Rural Broadband Access. http://www.releases.gov.nl.ca/releases/2013/ibrd/1202n11.htm p. 1.] · Coverage: means the number of currently Un-served households / Businesses to be provided with access to Broadband Service. 


90% of New Brunswickers will have access to high-speed Internet by the end of 2006 […] 95 % cent of business lines, and 100% of regional health care centres, business parks and First Nations' communities will gain access[footnoteRef:311] [311: Communications New Brunswick. (2003). Broadband access project to connect 90 per cent of New Brunswickers. http://www.gnb.ca/cnb/news/enb/2003e1078en.htm p.1.] “to ensure that the remaining 10 per cent of households and businesses in New Brunswick without high-speed Internet access will have it by July 2010 […][footnoteRef:312] [312: Communications New Brunswick. (2009). Government to extend high-speed Internet access. http://www.gnb.ca/cnb/news/bnb/2009e0102bn.htm p. 1.] By July 2010, 100% of the province will have access to high speed internet[footnoteRef:313] [313: Communications New Brunswick. (2009). Government to extend high-speed Internet access. http://www.gnb.ca/cnb/news/bnb/2009e0102bn.htm p. 1.] “By early 2010, virtually every Island home and business will be able to access high-speed Internet service”[footnoteRef:314] [314: Government of Prince Edward Island.(2010). Rural Action Plan. http://www.gov.pe.ca/photos/original/FARD_REDS.pdf p. 50] Now*, 99% of Nova Scotians have access to basic high speed internet[footnoteRef:315] [315: Government of Nova Scotia. (n.d.) Broadband for Rural Nova Scotia (BRNS). http://www.novascotia.ca/econ/broadband/ p. 1.] Regions targeted

“Administered by the Department of Innovation, Business and Rural Development (IBRD), the Rural Broadband Initiative (RBI) is a funding program designed to address gaps and deficiencies in Broadband Service infrastructure to households and Businesses throughout Newfoundland and Labrador. Specifically, RBI is targeted toward un-served areas where residential and Business consumers do not have access to high-speed Internet” [footnoteRef:316] [316: Government of Newfoundland and Labrador. Program Guidelines – Round Two Funding – Rural Broadband Initiative. http://www.gpa.gov.nl.ca/gs/attachments/RuralBroadband/RuralBroadband-1.pdf p. 6] all parts of the province, focus on rural areas[footnoteRef:317] [317: Communications New Brunswick. (2010). New Brunswick becomes Canada's leader in providing high-speed Internet access. http://www.gnb.ca/cnb/news/bnb/2010e0768bn.htm p. 1.] Rural communities[footnoteRef:318] [318: Communications New Brunswick. (2009). Government to extend high-speed Internet access. http://www.gnb.ca/cnb/news/bnb/2009e0102bn.htm p. 1.] “This fund fulfills a commitment made by the Province and Aliant to increase support for projects that demonstrate innovation in information technology, particularly projects focused on communications and communications technology that will aid in rural development” [footnoteRef:319] [319: Government of Prince Edward Island. .(2010). Rural Action Plan. http://www.gov.pe.ca/photos/original/FARD_REDS.pdf. p. 51] Years in operation

2011 – present (2014)[footnoteRef:320] [320: Government of Newfoundland and Laborador News Release. (2013). Energizing the Provincial Economy Through Expanded Rural Broadband Access. http://www.releases.gov.nl.ca/releases/2013/ibrd/1202n11.htm p. 1.] 2003 – 2006[footnoteRef:321] [321: Communications New Brunswick (2003). Broadband access project to connect 90 per cent of New Brunswickers. http://www.gnb.ca/cnb/news/enb/2003e1078en.htm p. 1.] 2009 – 2010[footnoteRef:322] [322: Communications New Brunswick. (2009). Government to extend high-speed Internet access. http://www.gnb.ca/cnb/news/bnb/2009e0102bn.htm p. 1.] **** 2010 – **** 2015

(projected)[footnoteRef:323] [323: Prince Edward Island Department of Fisheries, Aquaculture and Rural Development. .(2010). Rural Action Plan. http://www.gov.pe.ca/photos/original/FARD_REDS.pdf p. 1.] 2007 – 2014 (December)[footnoteRef:324] [324: Government of Nova Scotia. (n.d.) Broadband for Rural Nova Scotia (BRNS). http://www.novascotia.ca/econ/broadband/ p. 1.]

Money spent
Over $16.3 million since 2011 (adding contributions listed in 2011-2013 budget speeches)
Although Initiative only began in 2011…

“Since 2003, [the government has] invested $29 million in broadband infrastructure throughout Newfoundland and Labrador and raised the number of communities with broadband access from 114 to more than 500”[footnoteRef:325] [325: Government of Newfoundland and Labrador. Budget 2013 – Budget Speech. http://www.budget.gov.nl.ca/budget2013/speech/2013_BudgetSpeech.pdf p. 9.] $44.6 million

The Government of Canada will provide $16.5 million for this infrastructure project and the Province of New Brunswick will provide $12.5 million. Aliant will invest $15.6 million.[footnoteRef:326] [326: Communications New Brunswick (2003). Broadband access project to connect 90 per cent of New Brunswickers. http://www.gnb.ca/cnb/news/enb/2003e1078en.htm 1-2; Communications New Brunswick. (2006). Successful broadband program completed ahead of schedule. http://www.gnb.ca/cnb/news/bnb/2006e0861bn.htm p. 1.] $13 million[footnoteRef:327] [327: Communications New Brunswick. (2010). New Brunswick becomes Canada's leader in providing high-speed Internet access. http://www.gnb.ca/cnb/news/bnb/2010e0768bn.htm p. 1.] $1 Million dollars

(equal contributions from the Province of Prince Edward Island and Bell Aliant)[footnoteRef:328] [328: Government of Prince Edward Island. (2010). Rural Action Plan. http://www.gov.pe.ca/photos/original/FARD_REDS.pdf p. 51.] The Rural Broadband Fund (RBF) is a strategic partnership between Bell Aliant and the Province of Prince Edward Island. **** Bell Aliant and the Province have agreed to contribute $100,000 to this fund every year for the next five years to help qualified companies located on Prince Edward Island execute innovation-based information technology projects in rural Prince Edward Island. [footnoteRef:329] [329: Government of Prince Edward Island. (2010). Rural Action Plan. http://www.gov.pe.ca/photos/original/FARD_REDS.pdf p. 51] $75.5-million[footnoteRef:330] [330: ****, ****. (2014, February 21). Eastlink: Rural Internet Deadline Iffy. The Chronicle Herald. http://thechronicleherald.ca/business/1188968-eastlink-rural-internet-deadline-iffy p. 1] Eastlink was one of three private service providers that invested $41.4 million in the program. The province invested $19.6 million and the federal government contributed $14.5 million.[footnoteRef:331] [331: ****, ****. (2014, February 21). Eastlink: Rural Internet Deadline Iffy. The Chronicle Herald, http://thechronicleherald.ca/business/1188968-eastlink-rural-internet-deadline-iffy p. 1] Approx. total money spent to date

$29000000
$73600000
$86600000
$88100000
$163600000
Type of connection

Households and businesses[footnoteRef:332] [332: Government of Newfoundland and Labrador. Program Guidelines – Round Two Funding – Rural Broadband Initiative. . http://www.gpa.gov.nl.ca/gs/attachments/RuralBroadband/RuralBroadband-1.pdf p. 4.] Households, businesses,

Regional health care centers, business parks and First Nations’ communities[footnoteRef:333] [333: Communications New Brunswick (2003). Broadband access project to connect 90 per cent of New Brunswickers. http://www.gnb.ca/cnb/news/enb/2003e1078en.htm p. 1.] Households (dwellings)

Companies[footnoteRef:334] [334: Government of Prince Edward Island. .(2010). Rural Action Plan. http://www.gov.pe.ca/photos/original/FARD_REDS.pdf., p. 51.]
No. of households
Dwellings

“extend Internet service to an estimated 39,000 dwellings”[footnoteRef:335] [335: Communications New Brunswick. (2009). Government to extend high-speed Internet access. http://www.gnb.ca/cnb/news/bnb/2009e0102bn.htm p. 1.] No. of communities

raised the number of communities with broadband access from 114 to more than 500”[footnoteRef:336] [336: Government of Newfoundland and Labrador. Budget 2013 – Budget Speech. http://www.budget.gov.nl.ca/budget2013/speech/2013_BudgetSpeech.pdf p. 9.] extended coverage to 327 communities throughout rural New Brunswick [footnoteRef:337] [337: Communications New Brunswick. (2006). Successful broadband program completed ahead of schedule. http://www.gnb.ca/cnb/news/bnb/2006e0861bn.htm p. 3.] Technology – focus

technology neutrality[footnoteRef:338] [338: Government of Newfoundland and Labrador. Program Guidelines – Round Two Funding – Rural Broadband Initiative. . http://www.gpa.gov.nl.ca/gs/attachments/RuralBroadband/RuralBroadband-1.pdf p. 12.] Technology neutral[footnoteRef:339] [339: Communications New Brunswick. (2009). Government to extend high-speed Internet access. http://www.gnb.ca/cnb/news/bnb/2009e0102bn.htm p. 2.] Satellite[footnoteRef:340] [340: ****, ****. (2014, February 21). Eastlink: Rural Internet Deadline Iffy. The Chronicle Herald, http://thechronicleherald.ca/business/1188968-eastlink-rural-internet-deadline-iffy p. 1] Speeds

To this end, the program will target a minimal initial download Broadband Service connectivity speed of 1.5 Mbps to be deployed toward currently Un-served households and Businesses. Compliance with, or an evolutionary path to, the new Canadian Radio-television and Telecommunications Commission standard of 5 Mbps down and 1 Mbps up is a significant consideration. [footnoteRef:341] [341: Government of Newfoundland and Labrador. Program Guidelines – Round Two Funding – Rural Broadband Initiative. http://www.gpa.gov.nl.ca/gs/attachments/RuralBroadband/RuralBroadband-1.pdf p. 12.] 90% of New Brunswickers will have access to high-speed Internet by the end of 2006 […] 95 % cent of business lines, and 100% of regional health care centres, business parks and First Nations' communities will gain access[footnoteRef:342] [342: Communications New Brunswick (2003). Broadband access project to connect 90 per cent of New Brunswickers. http://www.gnb.ca/cnb/news/enb/2003e1078en.htm p. 1.] high speed internet[footnoteRef:343] [343: Communications New Brunswick. (2009). Government to extend high-speed Internet access. http://www.gnb.ca/cnb/news/bnb/2009e0102bn.htm p. 1.] “high-speed Internet service”[footnoteRef:344] [344: Government of Prince Edward Island. (2010). Rural Action Plan. http://www.gov.pe.ca/photos/original/FARD_REDS.pdf p. 50] “basic high speed internet” [footnoteRef:345] [345: Government of Nova Scotia. (n.d.) Broadband for Rural Nova Scotia (BRNS). http://www.novascotia.ca/econ/broadband/ p. 1.] Appearance before the Public Hearing

62. I (Michael McNally) request to appear at the public hearing in **** 2016. The justification for Dr. McNally’s appearance is that he (along with Dr. **** Rathi) holds an ongoing Social Sciences and Humanities Research Council funded research grant investigating rural broadband policies, and as such will be able to bring new insights from the research carried out between the written intervention and the public hearing. Drs. McNally and **** have also been involved in the most recent Van **** Institute’s Digital Futures event, and may also bring additional insights from the most recent (March 2015) and any future Digital Futures events.

[End of Intervention]

fiber/total pen Belgium Greece **** Germany Mexico Austria **** Italy Finland Australia New Zealand **** Canada Poland Spain Netherlands United States Switzerland Luxembourg Turkey Hungary Denmark Portugal Czech Republic Slovenia Iceland Norway Slovak Republic Estonia Sweden Korea Japan 1E-3 1E-3 4.0000000000000001E-3 1.0999999999999999E-2 1.2E-2 1.2999999999999999E-2 2.9000000000000001E-2 0.03 3.2000000000000001E-2 3.3000000000000002E-2 3.5000000000000003E-2 3.7999999999999999E-2 3.9E-2 0.04 7.6999999999999999E-2 8.5000000000000006E-2 8.7999999999999995E-2 0.09 0.114 0.156 0.157 0.19800000000000001 0.20499999999999999 0.21 0.215 0.22800000000000001 0.28000000000000003 0.32600000000000001 0.34100000000000003 0.40699999999999997 0.66300000000000003 0.71499999999999997 rm 2 9%

Fm 21 5%
Non mm 71w.
m
m M w my 9, w
H vs u u ,
w
3” x. , n
w
u
71 72
:n
m
v ‘ 2° 21 n
4 H-w “mm mm“ .3.“ Wm mm. mm
um .m.u|.,yml \Mhln‘
. m, .mwm- am”. ”mm m .mmmu W ,, m p pm 1:
****-time
Requiredpu-tnmnnu mmlltmcy
Streaming
Dial—up
1231(st
5 00 Kbps
Average available bandwithh
1.5 Mbps 5Mbps 15Mbps