Interventions Phase 2: Intervenor 783

Document Name: 2015-134.227378.2538312.Interventions Phase 2(1$#k_01!).html

URGENT WARNING !Hi!I suspect most comments you get are about extending the Internet broadband availability, especially for wireless communications, without any due consideration for their real and proven health impacts our dysfunctional Health Canada so adamantly deny but which, sadly, affect more and more Canadians, and which are particularly harmful to young children, including in school environments where they are exposed to industrial-strength WiFi routers and the aggregated WiFi signals from all the wireless devices used in class. So here is a different take on this, which I urge you to factor in your decision-making process.It is unconscionable to ignore the repeated health warnings from hundreds of scientific experts (See the International EMF Scientist Appeal on Electromagnetic Fields at https://emfscientist.org, now signed by 217 signatories from around the world, who have collectively published over 2,000 peer-reviewed papers on the biological or health effects of non-ionizing radiation) who have established without a shadow of a doubt that microwaves, especially at sub-thermal levels of intensity, have considerable deleterious cumulative impacts on the health and well-being of almost the entire population now exposed to power density levels far exceeding what can be considered safe. In fact, according to Dr. Olle Johansson, a world expert from Sweden, these levels are approximately one million billion times above natural background radiation levels (Ref.: "Canadians perilously overexposed to electromagnetic radiation" at http://bit.ly/1W0q4pQ). In this regard, the so-called "Safety" Code 6 (SC6) is highly misleading and extremely dangerous and cannot be held to be protective in any way, shape or form.I know you will retort that it is not in your power to correct this situation and that I should address my comments to Health Canada. Believe me, I did – in the context of the review of the SC6 by the Royal Society of Canada. See "A Matter of Conscience" at http://www.cqlpe.ca/MatterOfConscience.htm – but it was to no avail, as it was renewed last year without any significant change.So it is up to you now, if you are serious about consulting the population, to do something... which could be to encourage the Canadian population to keep their wireless devices turned off or on airplane mode as much as possible, use them only when absolutely necessary, and access the Internet mainly through wired connections. If you ignore these simple recommendations and instead make decisions that will ramp up everyone's microwave exposure, you will be ultimately responsible for bringing ever more people to the break point of electrosensitivity onset and triggering ever more cancers and deaths. I urge you to read renowed world expert **** Hardell's "Letter to WHO regarding brain tumour risk associated with exposure to radiofrequency fields" at http://bit.ly/1Xb8sZr. He partly concluded as follow : "In summary there is consistent evidence of increased risk for glioma and acoustic neuroma associated with use of mobile phones and cordless phones. Furthermore, the risk is highest for persons with first use before the age of 20, which is of special concern. Our conclusion is that RF-EMF should be regarded as a human carcinogen. The IARC classification should be updated to at least Group 2A, a probable human carcinogen. Current guidelines for exposure need to be urgently revised. The WHO Monograph draft on this issue is based on selective inclusion of studies and wrong assessment of the evidence of increased risk."You should also read "Children are more exposed to cell phone radio-frequency radiation than adults" at http://bit.ly/1TLufY5. It concerns the FCC in the U.S. but applies as well to Canada, which follows a similar policy of obfuscation and denial and uses the same standards. It partly reads: "The Federal government maintains the status quo by arguing it needs more definitive research before strengthening RF exposure limits. However, the government does not fund the needed research. Doesn't this constitute gross negligence on the part of our government? **** Alster's new book."Captured agency: How the Federal Communications Commission is dominated by the industries it presumably regulates," (See at http://bit.ly/1Oinrfb) helps explain why our government has maintained these obsolete RF safety limits for almost two decades."(...) "Our environment is now permeated by anthropogenic radiofrequency electromagnetic radiation, and individuals of all ages are exposed for most of each 24 h period from transmitting devices. Despite claims that children are more likely to be vulnerable than healthy adults to unwanted effects of this exposure, there has been no recent examination of this, nor of comparative risk to the elderly or ill."If you want more references, review what is posted at http://www.cqlpe.ca/Developpements2015.htm where I've compiled last year well over 1000 resources mainly on this issue.Finally, I'm attaching a Word Document that provides an in-depth review (prepared by Stever **** - http://bit.ly/1TLyfrw) of all that is wrong about the insane laissez-faire that still prevails when it comes to protecting the health and lives of Canadians from current dangerously high levels of EMF exposure, set to increase dramatically if you blindly approve an ever larger reliance on microwave communications instead of using wired communication means.Thanks for your careful consideration of my "observations".Jean HudonCo-founder of the Quebec's Coalition Against Electromagnetic Pollutionwww.cqlpe.ca

Interventions Phase 2: Intervenor 783

Document Name: 2015-134.227378.2538311.Interventions Phase 2(1$#kn01!).doc
[bookmark: _CDPro2_Undo]EHS Discussion Paper
What Western Protection Agencies and their cohorts are suggesting

· A communicated syndrome – anxiety and concern after reading or hearing something suggesting harm leads to symptom development. Also referred to as a nocebo effect.

· A psychological induced condition see point above.
· A possible pre-existing underlying health issue
· Not proven to be linked to EMR
From **** Webster's medical dictionary:

“Microwave Sickness: a condition of impaired health reported especially in the Russian medical literature that is characterized by headaches, anxiety, sleep disturbances, fatigue, and difficulty in concentrating and by changes in the cardiovascular and central nervous systems and that is held to be caused by prolonged exposure to low-intensity microwave radiation.”Complainants have related their symptoms most frequently to exposure to MP base stations (74%) followed by MPs (36%), cordless phones (29%), and power lines (27%) M. Röösli et al. 2004. Of course this ratio may now be significantly different with the rollout of free public WiFi, smart meters being deployed in so many countries around the world, often mandated by governments without public consent.

What at least 50 years of research has found
Recognised effected of even minute levels of microwave radiation have been shown to:
· Increase Permeability of **** Brain Barrier and gut, with increased glucose metabolism
· Open the blood-brain barrier to viruses and toxins
· Heat head, brain tissue & disrupt brain activity (altered EEG readings)
· Reverse cell membrane polarity
· Alter brain waves, alter brain chemistry and altered sleep
· Increase excitability at neuronal synapses
· Altered chronobiology leading to stress response
· Cause memory loss and mental confusion
· Poor exploration of the local environment, motivation waning
· Cause headaches and induce extreme fatigue
· Damage nerves in the scalp
· Cause blood cells to leak haemoglobin
· Create joint pain, muscle spasms and tremors
· Create burning sensation and rash on the skin
· Induce ringing in the ears, impair sense of smell
· Precipitate cataracts, retina damage and eye cancer
· Immune disruption leading to over active, under active, and autoimmune conditions.
· Reduce the number and efficiency of white blood cells
· Stimulate asthma by producing histamine in mast cells
· Cause digestive problems and raise bad cholesterol levels
· Stress the endocrine system, especially pancreas, thyroid, ovaries, testes
· Cause Single strand and double strand breaks in cellular DNA and other types of DNA damage
· Increase in tumorgenesis due to fragility and altered expression of RNA and DNA
· Oxidative stress
· Cancer
· Lead to both male and female infertility
· Lower levels of night time melatonin; sleep disruption
· Cause diverse neuropsychiatric changes, including depression

· Lead to changes to the electrical control of the heart resulting in tachycardia (rapid heartbeat), arrhythmia and sudden cardiac deathWhat Scientific Research Shows – Supported by Biological tests

EMF exposure impacts the body on many levels including the nervous system, the endocrine system, our genes, our immune system, and the brain. They can affect inter-cell communication within the body resulting in dysregulation of the cellular structure that can be associated with many neurological and behavioural changes, cardiac arrhythmia including atrial fibrillation, altered cell growth, fibromyalgia and Adrenal Fatigue Syndrome (AFS).

The common symptoms that people complain of relating to EMF sensitivity range from: headaches, constant and long term fatigue, digestive disorders, sleep disturbance, muscle tightness, memory disorders, metallic taste in the mouth, anxiety, heart palpitations and muscle twitches—many of these symptoms are also typical for Adrenal Fatigue Syndrome sufferers and those suffering endocrine/neurotransmitter imbalances.

Exposure to pulse modulated RF radiation, at a SAR values lower than levels where thermal effects may occur have been shown to affect both gene expression and cell regulatory functions.

The exposure of adult rats to EMR may cause disturbances in monoamine neurotransmitters and this may underlie many of the adverse effects reported after EMR including memory, learning, and stress.

HF-RFR exposure could affect neuronal activity through changes in membrane permeability, cellular excitability and neurotransmitter release. http://www.medscape.com/viewarticle/739524 · HF RFR effects levels of monoamines in the body. Monoamines refer to the neurotransmitters dopamine, noradrenaline and serotonin. The precursor to Melatonin is serotonin.

· Rats exposed to RF exhibited a disruption of circadian rhythms, decreased testosterone levels.
· Russian research repeatedly show low dose microwaves directly caused hypothalamic damage.
· Microwaves disrupt electron chain transport in mitochondria of rat brain. (Duke University)
· Pulsed EMF’s at lower frequencies directly inhibit firing rates of neurons. (UCLA)
· Leptin resistance and altered hormone levels. Sex steroids, Vitamin D, melatonin, IGF and PRL levels altered.
· 900 MHz RF exposure changed ACTH levels after 90 days exposure.

A suggested mechanism of harm of RF/EMF has been elucidated by Professor **** Pall and is tied into the NO/ONOO- cycle. Using calcium channel blockers has been claimed to stop RF/EMF symptoms.

Downstream effects of chronic exposure
Sleep disruption – Health implications

Incidence of poor sleep is higher than ever in history. The problem has developed in humans simultaneously with the proliferation of cellular telecommunication. It was established long ago that proper immune function relies on sufficient quality and duration of sleep. If you don't sleep deeply, for long enough there is insufficient ATP pooling and this results in insufficient night time repair, hormone production, memory consolidation and immune function.

EMF cripples mitochondria and promotes oxidative damage that damages them even more, setting up a vicious cycle of less and less mitochondrial energy. In addition, it entrains brain up to and beyond alert state to more stressful-beta states, increasing stress hormone production resulting in even more stress on the mitochondria while making it nearly impossible to quite the brain effectively during the night to achieve adequate Delta-rhythm sleep. A complete lack of Delta-rhythm for as little as 3 nights (in nearly all cases by night 5) caused healthy college students' glucose profiles to look pre-diabetic; and leptin (the satiation hormone) levels to drop significantly causing hunger and higher caloric intake due to junk-food cravings.

Insomnia affects an estimated 10-15% of American adults. Growing awareness of insomnia and other sleep disorders led to a doubling of physician visits for sleeplessness and an over 7-fold increase in visits with insomnia diagnoses from 1993 to 2007. Prescriptions for medications for insomnia have increased accordingly, with a striking 30-fold increase in prescriptions for nonbenzodiazepine sedative hypnotics (e.g. zolpidem) during this time.

Insomnia

People who suffer from insomnia are more prone to developing certain illnesses, including cancer, cardiovascular disease, diabetes, obesity, and gastrointestinal disorders.

Chronic effects of sleep loss including circadian disruption may also include immunologic and endocrine effects. That is, the wide range of body functions controlled by the internal biological clock includes body temperature, digestion, physical and mental performance, and endocrine and immune functions.

Depression

**** depression is the No.1 psychological disorder in the western world.(1) It is growing in all age groups, in virtually every community, and the growth is seen most in the young, especially teens. At the rate of increase, it will be the 2nd most disabling condition in the world by 2020, behind heart disease.

First and foremost, clinical or major depression is growing at an incredible rate.
People of all ages, backgrounds, lifestyles, and nationalities suffer from major depression, with a few exceptions.
· Up to 20% of people experience symptoms of depression.
· 10 times more people suffer from major depression now than in 1945 (2)
· The average age of first onset of major depression is 25-29
(1) ****, M. E. P. (1990) Learned Optimism.

(2) ****, M. E. P. In J. Buie (1988) 'Me' decades generate depression: individualism erodes commitment to others. APA Monitor, 19, 18. "People born after 1945 were ten times more likely to suffer from depression than people born 50 years earlier."Anxiety

Anxiety may be defined as a very uncomfortable feeling of nervousness, irritability or foreboding about the future. At times, it is attached to a particular event or situation or person. At other times, there is no obvious cause for it. This is called free-floating anxiety.

Can be caused by
· Biochemical imbalances (mineral and vitamin deficiencies or excess copper)
· Negative thinking

· Stress - Any stressful situation tends to cause a fight-or-flight reaction in the body with activation of the sympathetic nervous system. This tends to increase the heart rate and the blood pressure, increase the blood sugar level, and has other effects that can all contribute to feelings of anxiety.

· Electromagnetic stress from overusing cell phones or computers can lead to anxiety and panic attacks especially as it depletes the body of important minerals and vitamins over time (EMR cause cellular stress).

A panic attack occurs when anxiety feeds back on itself creating a vicious cycle that quickly escalates out of control. Essentially, a negative thought or emotion causes a bodily or physical fight-or-flight reaction. This, in turn, makes one more panicky. This, in turn, feeds back and worsens the stress response of the body.

Neurodegeneration

Neural cells suffer functional or sensory loss in neurodegenerative diseases. Oxidative stress (OS) can lead to free radical attack on neural cells and has a calamitous role in neuro-degeneration. Although oxygen is imperative for life, imbalanced metabolism and excess reactive oxygen species (ROS) generation results in a range of disorders such as Alzheimer’s disease, ****’s disease, aging and many other neural disorders. Neurodegenerative diseases comprise a condition in which nerve cells from brain and spinal cord are lost leading to either functional loss (ataxia) or sensory dysfunction (dementia). Mitochondrial (Mt) dysfunctions and excitotoxicity and finally apoptosis have been reported as pathological cause for aging and neurodegenerative diseases such as ****’s disease (PD), Alzheimer’s disease (AD), Multiple Sclerosis (MS) and amyolotrophic lateral sclerosis (ALS). Uttara B. et al. 2009Neurodegenerative diseases are one of the main causes of mental and physical disabilities. Neurodegeneration has been estimated to begin many years before the first clinical symptoms manifest, and even a prompt diagnosis at this stage provides very little advantage for a more effective treatment as the currently available pharmacotherapies are based on disease symptomatology only. The aetiology of the majority of neurodegenerative diseases remains unknown to most scientists, and even for those diseases caused by identified genetic mutations, the direct pathways from gene alteration to final cell death have not yet been fully elucidated. However there are a number of scientists who are suggesting the rising level of manmade EMR is a contributing factor that is overlooked by mainstream science. I have provided some plausible examples in this document that demonstrate that RF does directly affect the CNS based on changes in Neurotransmitter levels, Glucose metabolism but mechanism is not fully understood. Some possible reasons are provided including Calcium flux changes in cells as a result of the impact of EMR on Voltage Gated Calcium Channels (VGCC’s), the depletion of essential minerals such as Zinc and vitamins such as B6 as a result of chronic stress induced by long term RF exposure. Further studies should be directed towards determining and confirming the roles EMR has on Neurodegeneration by comparing populations who are avid uses of electrical/wireless devices and those who don’t.

RF effects nutrient levels
Glucose metabolism

Investigations by some researchers suggest that RF exposure induced a diabetes-like status through alteration of oxidative response. Increases glucose concentration in the blood. Talking over a mobile phone has been shown to increase the blood glucose level in humans, in case when age is ranging from 40 years and above. Also those who are affected from high level of blood sugar or are already diabetic patients, blood glucose levels increases dramatically to a higher level, when such people are made to talk over 15 minutes on a mobile phone. Mobile phone usage is therefore likely to be harmful for the health of diabetic people if they are already reporting high level of glucose in their blood. http://www.academia.edu/3083193/EFFECTS_OF_MOBILE_PHONE_RADIATION_ON_HEALTH_OF_DIABETIC_PATIENTS Zinc

Zinc is required by DNA polymerase, an enzyme required for the synthesis of DNA (responsible for inheritance), and by RNA polymerase, an enzyme required for the synthesis of RNA.

Other roles range from protection against oxidation to digestion and blood sugar regulation. Thus zinc is classified as an antioxidant when it functions as a cofactor for superoxide dismutase, the enzyme that disarms a particularly reactive form of oxygen. In digestion, the pancreatic protease, carboxypeptidase, requires zinc for its protein degrading action. Furthermore, the hormone insulin is processed and packaged as a zinc complex. Zinc also aids the interaction of insulin with its target tissues to facilitate the uptake of blood sugar.

Zinc supports normal cell division and growth, the function of cell membranes, the immune system, bone calcification and the development and function of male reproductive organs. Many trace minerals and vitamins, including zinc, are required for normal growth and development.

There is no "store" of zinc in the conventional sense. Under conditions of bone resorption and tissue catabolism, zinc can be released and, to some extent, reutilized. Zinc is lost from the body via the kidneys, the skin and the intestine.

Albino rats that were exposed to a 950 MHz electromagnetic field (EMF) for a period of eight weeks had their brain, spleen and intestine samples collected for trace element analysis. The group of animals subjected to electromagnetic waves were found to have significant increases in iron copper levels and copper/zinc ratio accompanied with a decrease of zinc level in all studied organs. For more information on how Zinc can be depleted refer to “Pyroluria” below.

Calcium Flux

Calcium ions are crucial for cAMP pathway as well as serotonin/melatonin conversion and their efflux from pinealocytes is reported to cause melatonin suppression. Besides, calcium dependent signal transduction systems also have been implicated in the mediation of immune cell effects by low frequency EMF. However, authors have indicated the occurrence of calcium efflux/influx at some specific exposure combinations but not at other relatively closer exposure characteristics mainly due to the “window” effect or nonlinear nature of modulation frequency and intensity effect. Professor **** Pall’s has recently suggested that his research shows “activation of the heat shock transcription factor can be produced by excessive intracellular calcium levels and that this response to [Ca2+]i has been found in diverse eukaryotic organisms including diverse animals (including Drosophila and Ceanorhabditis and both vertebrates and other invertebrates) , higher plants and in yeast. Several other transcription factors are activated EMF exposures, notably Ap-1, Ap-2, and Sp-1. Ap-1 is, of course, well known to be activated by oxidants and therefore, may be expected to be activated by the peroxynitrite/free radical/oxidative stress pathway that is an important downstream pathway of VGCC activation and consequent elevation of [Ca2+]i. Calcium, of course has important roles in transcriptional regulation and activation of the L-type VGCCs was shown to have a direct important role in transcriptional regulation as well, a role in addition to its role in increasing [Ca2+]i (see Dolmetsch et al, Science 2001;294(5541):333-339). Other possible effects that are downstream of VGCC activation involves the known role of elevated peroxynitrite, acting through its free radical breakdown products, in producing both single strand and double strand breaks in DNA”, a mechanism discussed in his recent 2013 EMF paper. “The voltage sensor of the VGCCs has a universal or near universal role in converting electrical effects into chemical changes in the cell. “ **** Pall 2015.

Neurotransmitters Synthesis

Certain nutrients must be present in order for the brain to synthesize neurotransmitters. In order for the body to synthesize serotonin and melatonin, the amino acid tryptophan must be present. For the synthesis of the neurotransmitters dopamine and norepinephrine, the amino acid tyrosine must be present. Another neurotransmitter, Gamma Aminobutyric Acid (GABA), is synthesized from the amino acid glutamine. The presence of these amino acids, however, is not sufficient in itself to guarantee that the neurotransmitters are synthesized in normal levels in the brain. Pyridoxine (vitamin B6) and zinc are two important nutrients that must be present for the body to synthesize serotonin, dopamine, norepinephrine, and GABA. Without B6 and zinc, conversion of the aforementioned amino acids to the respective neurotransmitters cannot occur. Chronic EMF exposure can lead to a depletion of both Zinc and B6 – Pyroluria.

Persons with pyroluria are often under chronic stress. Cortisol is produced by the adrenal glands when the body is under stress. Cortisol is released as a response to chronic stress, no matter the source of the stress (physical, chemical, emotional or environmental). Cortisol is also known to be elevated in depression and sleep disturbances. An elevated cortisol level activates a liver enzyme called tryptophan pyrrolase, which breaks down the amino acid tryptophan, decreasing the amount available by the body to make serotonin.

RF Effects the endocrine system (Hormone Levels)
Recent Studies that look at the impact of HF RF on Monoamine levels are as follows:

· Investigated the effect of EMR on the concentrations of dopamine (DA), norepinephrine (NE) and serotonin (5-HT) found significant changes in DA, NE and 5-HT in the four selected areas of adult rat brain. (1800Mhz ) Aboul E. et al. 2013 · Investigate Biogenic monoamines and metabolites (dopamine, serotonin) 900 Mhz exposure - showed alterations of monoamine content in several brain areas but mainly in the hippocampus. Maaroufi K. et al. (2014)· LLER exposure (900Mhz) increased the blood 5-HT level significantly (short term exposure). Eris AH. et al. 2015

· Significant reduction in levels of DA, NE, E and 5-HT in hippocampus of microwave-exposed animals in comparison with sham-exposed (control) animals. Megha K. et al. Feb 2015More specific details of each hormone action is provided below.

Epinephrine and norepinephrine, also called adrenaline and noradrenaline, two separate but related hormones secreted by the medulla of the adrenal glands. They are also produced at the ends of sympathetic nerve fibres, where they serve as chemical mediators for conveying the nerve impulses to effector organs. Chemically, the two compounds differ only slightly; and they exert similar pharmacological actions, which resemble the effects of stimulation of the sympathetic nervous system. They are, therefore, classified as sympathomimetic agents. The active secretion of the adrenal medulla contains approximately 80 percent epinephrine and 20 percent norepinephrine; but this proportion is reversed in the sympathetic nerves, which contain predominantly norepinephrine.

The actions of epinephrine and norepinephrine are generally similar, although they differ from each other in certain effects. Norepinephrine constricts almost all blood vessels, while epinephrine causes constriction in many networks of minute blood vessels but dilates the blood vessels in the skeletal muscles and the liver. **** hormones increase the rate and force of contraction of the heart, thus increasing the output of blood from the heart and increasing the blood pressure. The hormones also have important metabolic actions. Epinephrine stimulates the breakdown of glycogen to glucose in the liver, which results in the raising of the level of blood sugar. **** hormones increase the level of circulating free fatty acids. The extra amounts of glucose and fatty acids can be used by the body as fuel in times of stress or danger where increased alertness or exertion is required. Epinephrine is sometimes called the emergency hormone because it is released during stress and its stimulatory effects fortify and prepare an animal for either “fight or flight.” Dopamine

RF exposure results in Dopamine reduction. Dopamine is a neurotransmitter that helps control the brain's reward and pleasure centres. When dopamine levels fall low due to drug use, poor nutrition, stress, lack of sleep and the habitual use of antidepressants, symptoms such as depression, mood swings, poor attention and food cravings can occur. One of the principal symptoms of dopamine deficiency is depression, chronic boredom, a loss of satisfaction, apathy, chronic fatigue and low physical energy with no desire to exercise the body. The body is chilled and feet and hands become cold. People suffering from low dopamine levels experience cravings for sugar and stimulants and often become addicted to caffeine. **** sugar and alcohol instantly skyrocket blood sugar levels and temporarily raise levels of at least two potent mood chemicals in the brain. This "high" would be followed by a low, of course. If you are battling sugar cravings you may be depleted of dopamine leading to feelings of fatigue, lack of concentration, focus, motivation and mood swings. The only way to relieve these symptoms is to use increase quantities of the substance thereby reinforcing their dependence. Some of the symptoms described above (bold) are experienced by severe EHS sufferers.

Melatonin

It is established that both, the “mood hormone” serotonin and also the “sleep-“and “immune defence hormone” melatonin is formed in the pineal gland of the brain, whereby serotonin represents a precursor of melatonin.

In healthy conditions a maximum of the sleep hormone melatonin is formed from serotonin during the night, whilst, during the daytime, the ‘mood hormone’ serotonin is shown to be clearly increased, at the expense of the then severely reduced amount of the ‘sleep hormone’, melatonin.

In addition, undisturbed melatonin excretion synchronises various biological and hormonal rhythms in the human body and ensures deep revitalising sleep.

As a rule, the daytime melatonin level in the blood serum is very much lower than the nocturnal maximum melatonin level. The paradox increase in the daytime melatonin levels reflects the general tendency to marked daytime tiredness of people exposed to radiation.

The increase of the daytime melatonin level, that is also normally substantially lower in comparison to the nocturnal melatonin peak, also indicates a displacement of the flattened nocturnal distribution graph in the morning direction. Normally, the level increases about 1-2 hours after going to bed, it reaches a maximum between 2 a.m. and 3 a.m. and then drops off again steeply until the morning hours.

The displacement of melatonin excretion in the morning direction means:

(1) relative melatonin deficiency at night with shortened phases of deep sleep. This is indicated by restless sleep with frequency awakening, and (2) increased melatonin level at the time of arising from bed. It is symptomatic of this, that one has difficulty getting out of bed in the morning and feels “absolutely whacked”. During the day, consecutive symptoms appear, such as tiredness, irritability, loss of concentration etc.

Of 16 participants who complained about sleep disturbances, 6 complained that they were regularly awakened between 2 a.m. and 4 a.m. and that they then had difficulty getting off to sleep again.

Serotonin

Serotonin is one of the so-called inhibitory neurotransmitters that serves to balance any excessive excitatory (stimulating) neurotransmitter (like dopamine) firing in the brain.

Serotonin exerts powerful influence over mood, emotions, memory, cravings (especially for carbohydrates), self-esteem, pain tolerance, sleep habits, appetite, digestion and body-temperature regulation. It is often thought of as our “happy hormone,” especially because its production increases when we’re exposed to natural sunlight.

Production of serotonin is closely linked to the availability of vitamin B6 and the amino acid tryptophan. High levels of the stress hormone cortisol rob us of serotonin.

Vitamin B6 in particular supports the production and function of serotonin, melatonin and dopamine in the brain. http://www.drlam.com/blog/electromagnetic-fields-emf-and-adrenal-fatigue-syndrome-part-2/4470/ **** term exposure will cause Serotonin levels to increase. **** term exposures result in Serotonin to decrease (See Pyroluria).

Serotonin Syndrome (elevated levels) symptoms:
· Confusion
· Agitation or restlessness
· Dilated pupils
· Headache
· Changes in blood pressure and/or temperature
· Nausea and/or vomiting
· Diarrhea
· Rapid heart rate/Irregular heart beat
· Tremor
· Loss of muscle coordination or twitching muscles
· Shivering and goose bumps
· Heavy sweating
· Insomnia
Serotonin Deficiency (Many symptoms here correlate with what EHS sufferers experience):
· Headaches
· Anxiety in typically low stress situations
· Impatience without explanation
· Fatigue when you should feel rested and energized
· Cognitive impairment (inability to focus, poor memory, lack of mental clarity)
· Agitation
· Mood swings
· Depression
· **** sugar cravings
· Insomnia

****-term HF RFR exposure most likely will release the available serotonin depots in various cell types to the surrounding tissue - where it will later be metabolized to 5-HIAA (5-hydroxyindoleacetic acid) - thus increasing the available serotonin and 5-HIAA (to be used for measurements of an increased tissue/blood/CSF level). (This whole release process could be dependent on ion channel activation, and such.) However, long-term exposures will rapidly result in a depletion of the available cellular stores, maybe even with an impact on the actual serotonin synthesis, changes in receptor sensitivity leading to an even quicker release/depletion, etc., etc., etc., thus a decrease in serotonin levels after chronic long term exposures.

In summary, it seems that the artificial electromagnetic fields/signals initially activates cells with concomitant glucose usage increases, sugar cravings, neuronal activation, etc. This is then followed by a deterioration of cellular activity as well as depletion of available tissue stores leading to a decrease of available transmitters, growth factors, immune regulators, etc., again maybe paralleled by postsynaptic receptor super sensitivity, autoreceptor sensitization, presynaptic uptake increases, etc. Prof. Olle Johansson 2015.

Testosterone

A significant decrease (P < 0.05) in the level of testosterone and an increase in caspase-3 activity were found in the RF-exposed animals. A reduction in testosterone, an increase in caspase-3, and distortion in spermatozoa could be caused by overproduction of reactive oxygen species (ROS) in animals under mobile phone radiation exposure.

Circadian Rhythm

A recent study confirms the existence of circadian rhythms in the synthesis of MEL and testosterone, but revealed an inverse relationship in peak phase of these rhythms. These rhythms were disturbed after exposure to RF (1800Mhz), with the effect being more pronounced on MEL than testosterone. The most pronounced effect of RF exposure on MEL and testosterone appears to be in rats exposed to RF at ZT 16 and ZT0 h, respectively. Qin F et al. 2012The same researchers also found that 900Mhz also appears to impact the Circadian Rhythm with a slightly different profile.

RF is a cellular stressor

Physiological stress represents a wide range of physical responses that occur as a direct effect of a stressor causing an upset in the homeostasis of the body. Upon immediate disruption of either psychological or physical equilibrium the body responds by stimulating the nervous, endocrine, and immune systems. The reaction of these systems causes a number of physical changes that have both short- and long-term effects on the body. A life-threatening situation such as a major physical trauma or prolonged starvation can greatly disrupt homeostasis. On the other hand, an organism’s attempt at restoring conditions back to or near homeostasis, often consuming energy and natural resources, can also be interpreted as stress.

The peripheral nervous system (PNS) consists of two subsystems: the somatic nervous system and the autonomic nervous system. When a physical stressor acts upon the body the sensory-somatic nervous system is triggered through stimulation of the body's sensory nerves. The signal acts as a nerve impulse and travels through the body in a process of electrical cell-to-cell communication until it reaches the automatic nervous system. Activation of the automatic nervous system immediately triggers a series of involuntary chemical responses throughout the body. Preganglionic neurons release the neurotransmitter acetylcholine (ACh). This stimulates postganglionic neurons which release noradrenaline. The noradrenaline flows directly into the bloodstream ensuring that all cells in the body's nervous and endocrine systems have been activated.

Stress produces changes in many body systems; examples include increased heart rate and blood pressure and altered immune function.

Oxidative Stress

Nitric oxide (NO) is an important signalling molecule that essentially regulates the relaxation and proliferation of vascular smooth muscle cells, leukocytes adhesion, platelets aggregation, angiogenesis, thrombosis, vascular tone and hemodynamics. Humans are constantly exposed to free radicals created by electromagnetic radiation from the manmade environment such as pollutants and cigarette smoke. Natural resources such as radon, cosmic radiation, as well as cellular metabolisms (respiratory burst, enzyme reactions) also add free radicals to the environment. The most common reported cellular free radicals are hydroxyl (OH·), superoxide (O2–·) and nitric monoxide (NO·). Overproduction of free radicals can cause oxidative damage to biomolecules, (lipids, proteins, DNA), eventually leading to many chronic diseases such as atherosclerosis, cancer, diabetics, rheumatoid arthritis, post-ischemic perfusion injury, myocardial infarction, cardiovascular diseases, chronic inflammation, stroke and septic shock, aging and other degenerative diseases in humans. Uttara B. et al. 2009Cortisol and Noradrenaline

A number research papers show that chronic HF RFR causes increases in Cortisol and Noradrenaline stress hormones. High levels of cortisol put a strain on your body's health. It is normal for cortisol levels to rise during times of acute stress, but it is abnormal for these levels to remain high. Prolonged elevated levels of this steroid hormone affect immune function, metabolic pathways for use of energy and chronic disease risk. **** glucose is particularly affected by elevated cortisol levels. Cortisol's role is to provide glucose to the body through utilization of protein stores. This quick delivery of glucose prepares your body for the fight or flight mechanism. When the body is in a persistent stressful state, cortisol is constantly obtaining glucose. This constant flow of glucose leads to high blood sugar levels. Cortisol also reduces the effects of insulin. Therefore, not only are blood glucose levels high, insulin is unable to perform its regular function of maintaining normal glucose levels.

Cortisol is a life sustaining adrenal hormone essential to the maintenance of homeostasis. Called “the stress hormone,” cortisol influences, regulates or modulates many of the changes that occur in the body in response to stress including, but not limited to:

· **** sugar (glucose) levels
· Fat, protein and carbohydrate metabolism to maintain blood glucose (gluconeogenesis)
· Immune responses
· Anti-inflammatory actions
· **** pressure
· **** and blood vessel tone and contraction
· Central nervous system activation

The stress response is activated so often that the body does not always have a chance to return to normal. This can lead to health problems resulting from too much circulating cortisol and/or from too little cortisol if the adrenal glands become chronically fatigued (adrenal fatigue).

EMFs can decrease the serum cortisol levels in cases where exposure is chronic long term leading to adrenal fatigue. As cortisol plays an important role in blood pressure regulation, cardiovascular, and immune system function, a low cortisol level may threaten health. Mortazavi et al. 2012Higher and more prolonged levels of circulating cortisol (like those associated with chronic stress) have been shown to have negative effects, such as:*· Impaired cognitive performance

· Dampened thyroid function
· **** sugar imbalances, such as hyperglycemia
· Decreased bone density
· Sleep disruption
· Decreased muscle mass
· Elevated blood pressure
· Lowered immune function
· Slow wound healing

· Increased abdominal fat, which has a stronger correlation to certain health problems than fat deposited in other areas of the body.

Chronically lower levels of circulating cortisol (as in adrenal fatigue) have been associated with negative effects, such as:*
· Brain fog, cloudy-headedness and mild depression
· Low thyroid function
· **** sugar imbalances, such as hypoglycemia
· Fatigue – especially morning and mid-afternoon fatigue
· Sleep disruption
· Low blood pressure
· Lowered immune function
· Inflammation

Once again people with EHS demonstrate symptoms in both situations. Which category a sufferer will slot into will probably depend on how long and how much they are suffering. Whether they are able to remove themselves from the identified source (wireless transmitter) or not. whether the symptoms are triggered of occasionally or all the time.

Heat shock protein HSP70
Heat stress, oxidative stress, starvation, desiccation and physical stress.

The expression of most members of the HSP70 family is strongly induced by stresses, including heat, nutrient deprivation, and metal toxicity, as well as by inflammation and other disease processes. Under these conditions, many proteins begin to unfold, exposing hydrophobic domains, increasing the likelihood of protein aggregation, loss of cellular functions and, ultimately, cell death. The HSPs cover the displayed hydrophobic domains of unfolding proteins until cellular conditions return to normal. Proteins that interact with client proteins are called “chaperones”; all HSPs appear to be chaperones, while not all chaperones are HSPs.

While many stresses can induce HSPs, the cellular response as well as the types and amounts of HSPs that are induced depends on the type of stress. Hydrogen peroxide, superoxide, and nitric oxide, for example, each produces a unique stress response. Each of these stresses triggers the expression of a unique subset of genes that could moderate their deleterious effects, but they are poor inducers of HSPs. That is, the addition of hydrogen peroxide, peroxide or superoxide generators, or nitric oxide donors only poorly increases the expression of HSPsElectromagnetic field (EMF) exposures have been shown to induce heat shock proteins (HSPs), which help to maintain the conformation of cellular proteins during periods of stress. However long term exposure results in a decrease in HSP70 levels and resulting decline in cytoprotection suggests a mechanism by which daily exposure (such as might be experienced by mobile phone users) could enhance the probability of cancer and other diseases.

http://www.pubfacts.com/detail/11813250/Chronic-electromagnetic-field-exposure-decreases-HSP70-levels-and-lowers-cytoprotection.

EMF and Adrenal Fatigue Syndrome

Adrenal Fatigue Syndrome is a neuro-endocrinologic condition where the body becomes weak under stress. Stress comes in many forms—emotional (anger, anxiety, finances, relationships), physical (pain, exertion, excessive exercise), inherited (genetic, prenatal) and environmental (EMFs, toxins, weather, allergens). We are concerned with the environmental stress to the body that is caused by EMFs.

Why is it that not all AFS sufferers who are exposed to EMF react to it negatively? One possible answer to this is that EMF exposure is only one of the many toxic burdens that the body carries. Therefore, individual reactions vary with EMF exposure depending on the individual person’s overall toxic load. Those with Adrenal Fatigue Syndrome already have a weakened constitution and any further stress on the body, in this case, daily EMF exposure, can make the symptoms worse. In light of this understanding, EMF sensitivity can be a sign that your body is under a heavy toxic load, be it environmental, nutritional or emotional/mental. In advanced cases of AFS the probability of concurrent sensitivity to EMFs along with severe weakness is higher. Some sufferers, as a result, cannot physically function normally when near a cell phone, electrical equipment and/or household appliances. In extreme cases, one has to live far away from modern civilization, such as in a remote forest environment to avoid EMF exposure in order for symptoms like heart palpitations and anxiety to subside.

Pyroluria

Individuals with this disorder produce excessive amounts of a by-product of haemoglobin synthesis called "kryptopyrrole" (KP) or "haemepyrrole in the liver." Kryptopyrrole has no known function in the body and is excreted in urine.

Kryptopyrrole binds to pyridoxine (vitamin B6) and zinc and makes them unavailable for their important roles as co-factors in enzymes and metabolism. These essential nutrients when bound to kryptopyrrole are removed from the bloodstream and excreted into the urine as pyrroles.

Zinc and B6 are critical nutrients for producing all proteins including enzymes, hormones and neurotransmitters required by all organs, muscle and connective tissue. This shortage affects the functioning of the entire body and mind, including immune system, digestion, cognitive functioning and emotions.

Symptoms of Pyroluria include poor stress control, nervousness, anxiety, mood swings, severe inner tension, episodic anger (an explosive temper), poor short-term memory, sensitivity to light and sound as well as depression. Sufferers can also tire easily (chronic fatigue), experience migraines, nervous exhaustion, insomnia, joint pain and develop skin rashes.

These individuals cannot efficiently create serotonin (a neurotransmitter that reduces anxiety and depression) since vitamin B6 is an important factor in the last step of its synthesis.

Doctors will often misdiagnose sufferers with a psychological disorder and prescribe SSRI medications such as Prozac, Paxil, Zoloft, Celexa etc. Some improvement maybe noticed but as with all mind-altering drugs, side effects occur and the true cause of the mental difficulties will remain uncorrected because they do not address the metabolic deficiencies.

Pyroluria can develop as a result of a significant stress event (mental, illness, trauma etc.) or as a result of a genetic defect. As the syndrome is stress-induced, the susceptible patient, when stressed, quickly becomes vitamin B6 and zinc deficient. Research has identified that stress increases the production of Pyrroles in blood, which in turn leads to worsening of symptoms.

Leaky Gut Syndrome is widespread in sufferers of Pyroluria and a common factor in driving up blood Pyrrole levels. It is a well-known fact that stress damages the intestinal wall and causes intestinal inflammation. **** of which lead to an increase in Leaky Gut Syndrome.

Studies have shown that zinc deficiency also increases bowel permeability. Free radicals or oxidative stress are substances that can damage and destroy cells. Oxidative stress has an important role in Pyroluria and mental illness. EMR exposure has been linked to Cellular stress leading to Oxidative Stress.

The human body has three major antioxidant systems; Glutathione, Catalase and Superoxide Dismutase and these all need either zinc or vitamin B6 in some part to assist in their production. Stresses, illnesses, injury, etc can be expected to elevate Kp levels.

Pyrolurics are stress intolerant, they seem to be especially vulnerable to cumulative stress over many days.
I suspect that Pyroluria features in a large proportion of people who are EHS, MCS etc.
Platelets and Bilirubin

Bilirubin is a reddish coloured pigment that is a by-product of haemoglobin. Red blood cells typically reach the end of their life at about 120 days. When this happens, the haemoglobin inside the red cells is converted to a form of bilirubin. This form is called unconjugated bilirubin. Normally, the liver picks up most bilirubin and changes it to a form called conjugated bilirubin. This form moves from the liver cells into the tiny bile ducts in the liver. These ducts feed into the common bile duct, which connects the liver and gallbladder (where bile is stored) to the intestine. Some of the bilirubin gets reabsorbed and the rest leaves the body as waste.

When undergoing tests the lab report will typically contain two readings — total bilirubin and direct bilirubin. The total level measures all bilirubin in the blood. The direct level measures only the conjugated bilirubin.

A high total bilirubin level with a high direct bilirubin level would occur in someone who has a blockage of the bile duct (such as from a gallstone) or liver disease (such as hepatitis or cirrhosis).

A high total bilirubin level with a normal or only slightly increased direct bilirubin level means that most of the bilirubin in the blood has not been processed by the liver. This unconjugated bilirubin is measured as indirect bilirubin. High levels occur when:

· A person has a defect in the enzymes needed to efficiently conjugate bilirubin.

This is called ****’s syndrome. It is not dangerous. It can turn the whites of your eyes yellow if you fast or don’t get enough sleep. But there is no damage to the liver or other body parts. Eat and get rest and the bilirubin level will fall.

· A person has premature destruction of many red blood cells.

This condition is called haemolytic anaemia. Millions of damaged red cells release large amounts of haemoglobin that rapidly change to unconjugated (indirect) bilirubin. The liver can’t process such a huge load. So, most of the total bilirubin is indirect bilirubin. **** cells breaking down too fast can be caused by an autoimmune disease, genetic defect, drug toxicity, or infection. Catabolism of muscle cells or haemolysis of blood cells, large amounts of zinc are released into the circulation and lost through the urine. Some studies suggest that microwave exposure effects RBC lifetime and may lead to a high turnover of red blood cells.

Animal tests show that exposure to microwave Radio Frequencies significantly increases bilirubin levels. This may be as a result of damage to the liver by RF exposure (oxidative stress), red blood cells becoming damage from exposure, or as part of the bodies process to compensate for loss of zinc by increase the levels of zinc through catabolism.

Cellular Compensation Mechanisms

Glycolysis, the well-known metabolic pathway of glucose degradation resulting in formation of the high-energy compounds ATP and NADH, may also be involved in a compensatory response in neurodegenerative diseases. Glycolysis has been shown to compensate for mitochondrial dysfunction An increase in BDNF (brain-derived neurotrophic factor) expression may reflect a compensatory mechanism against early neurodegenerationNoradrenaline (NA) is one of the most important neurotransmitter in the brain and the projections of noradrenergic neurons originating in the locus ceruleus penetrate virtually all brain structures. an enhanced level of NA may have a neuroprotective effect.

RF-induced changes in cell proliferation and apoptosis are the result of a genetic compensatory mechanism and/or of a negative feedback loop.

Further studies need to be carried out to ascertain whether the described perturbations of the cells are permanent or reversible and if there are one or more points of no-return related to the type of cells and to the times of exposure.

Important Studies from the past that seem to be ignored
NASA Study Electromagnetic **** Interactions with the Human Body: Observed Effects and Theories – **** 1981
Dr **** K Raines

“it was generally assumed that others, called NIR (nonionizing radiation), had no effects besides the rather obvious ones, which were either avoidable or controllable, such as heating and electric shock. More recently this assumption has been reconsidered”**** theories and observations link nonionizing electromagnetic fields to cancer in humans.

The different tables and figures (in reference to different international standards) emphasize different parameters of the electromagnetic field as the basis for comparison. Some of them are:

· Frequency
· Duration of exposure
· **** intensity, regardless of power density
· **** density, regardless of field intensity
· Modulation, electrical (due to waveform) or mechanical ( due to rotating antennas)
None of the tables or figures seem to emphasize one essential characteristic of the field, namely, polarization.

Of these controversial effects, the ones associated with the central nervous system are collectively termed "neurasthenia". Some of these are reportedly reversible. That is, when the electromagnetic field vanishes, so do the effects.

First, there is a report by **** of the most extreme adverse effect, death (by sudden infant death syndrome). Second, there is a report from the United States by Bise concerning neurasthenic effects previously reported exclusively from Eastern Europe. Also, an Italian report by Alberti concerns neurasthenic effects. Third, an extreme adverse effect, promotion of cancer, is reported from Australia by ****.

Important - results from controlled experiments show that removal of the earth's natural electric field and/or the application of a manmade field can disrupt circadian rhythm.

it is seen that electromagnetic fields may cause death in at least two ways, ventricular fibrillation and sudden infant death syndrome. **** of these occur at power line frequencies; however, one technical newsletter (BioeZectromagnetic Society NewsZetter, December, 1980) reported one fatality associated with much higher frequencies. Death followed accelerated aging, and a New **** State court was convinced that protracted exposure to microwaves was the cause.

Subjective Symptoms related to Radio frequencies (Dwyer 1978)
Headaches
Eyestrain
Fatigue
Dizziness
Disturbed sleep at night
Sleepiness in daytime
Moodiness
Irritability
Unsociability
Hypochondriac reactions
Feelings of fear
Nervous tension
Mental depression
Memory impairment
Pulling sensation in the scalp and brow
Loss of hair
Pain in muscles and heart region
Breathing difficulties
Increased perspiration of extremities
Difficulty with sex life
CLINICAL MANIFESTATIONS OF CHRONIC OCCUPATIONAL EXPOSURE
OF 525 WORKERS TO ELECTROMAGNETIC RADIATION AT MICROWAVE
FREQUENCIES
Symptomatology
Bradycardia
Disruption of the endocrine-humoral process
Hypotension
Intensification of the activity of thyroid gland
Exhausting influences on the central nervous system
Decrease in sensitivity to smell
Increase in histamine content of the blood
Subjective Complaints
Increased fatigability
Periodic or constant headaches
Extreme irritability
Sleepiness during work
[image: ]
[image: ]

an electric field can cause the agglomeration of particles (e.g. molecules in solution) which are normally separated…. is called pearl chain formation. The individual particles, or pearls, are electrically neutral but the electric field polarizes them. Then, they are attracted to each other, negative end to positive end. (We see this in live blood analysis with red blood cells stacked up on one another Reouloux formation.

[image: ]

A radiofrequency electromagnetic field over red blood cells introduces an additional negative polarization energy component that may promote the rouleaux formation. http://www.ursi.org/proceedings/procGA08/papers/KP2p11.pdf [image: ]Lipid bilayer containing membrane proteins.

The proteins can serve as channels through
the membrane for selected ions, as active
transmembrane pumps for specific molecules as catalysts in chemical reactions, or as structural units in the membrane.

The proteins are important, electromagnetically, because they can conduct charges, while lipids are good insulators. Thus, proteins are the conductances in the various equations and circuit models of the membrane. Exactly how current passes through proteins is not well understood, but the size and shape of the protein is almost certainly significant. If it somehow becomes bent or compressed, or if its site in the lipid layer is disrupted, then conduction is probably affected.

A major purpose of the report is to indicate that there are good, bad and benign effects to be expected from non-ionizing EM fieldsUS Air force Paper - RADIOFREQUENCY MICROWAVE RADIATION BIOLOGICAL EFFECTS AND SAFETY STANDARDS: A REVIEW 1994

**** M. Bolen

Exposure of the human body to RF/MW radiation has many biological implications. The effects range from innocuous sensations of warmth to serious physiological damage to the eye [1], [2], (5], [6], [8], [15]. There is also evidence that RF/MW radiation can cause cancer [8].

Nonthermal responses can be less noticeable and are often more difficult to explain than thermal effects. These responses are related to the disturbances in the tissue not caused by heating. Electromagnetic fields can interact with the bioelectrical functions of the irradiated human tissue [8].

The WHO investigation found evidence linking exposure of RF/MW radiation to cardiovascular disease and cancer. The **** Karelian population suffered from an unusually high number of heart attacks and cases of cancer. In addition, it was found that the affliction rate of these diseases was much higher among residents living closest to the radar site [8].

There is evidence that RF/MW radiation can affect the blood and blood forming systems of animals and humans. Experiments conducted in the Soviet Union have indicated changes in blood cell levels and alterations in the biological activities of hematologic elements.

After repeated exposures, it was discovered that the number of lymphocytes and leukocytes (white blood cells) in the bloodstream of the rats was lower than normal. Exposure to RF/MW radiation has been observed to cause physical alterations in the essential cells of the immune system and a degradation of immunologic responses [7], [17]. Even exposure to low levels of RF/MW radiation can impair immunologic functions [17].

The researchers reported that several CNS related disorders were discovered among 525 workers exposed to RF/MW radiation. The symptoms were listed as: hypotension, slower than normal heart rates, an increase in the histamine content of the blood, an increase in the activity of the thyroid gland, disruption of the endocrine-hormonal process, alterations in the sensitivity to smell, headaches, irritability, and increased fatigue. Other researchers have acknowledged similar biological responses [8].

Exposure to RF/MW radiation has been observed to cause a disruption in the behaviour of animals. Experiments conducted on rats and nonhuman primates indicates that conditioned responses can be altered as a result of irradiation. Researchers indicate that behavior may be the most. sensitive biological component to RF/MW radiation [1], [7], [9], (29].

D. R. Justesen and N. W. **** (reference found in [7]) reported experimental results that demonstrated a degenerative behavioral effect in laboratory animals that were exposed to RF/MW radiation.

For both CW and pulsed EM fields the exposure time should not exceed 6 minutes at the recommended levels.

Experimental evidence has shown that exposure to low intensity radiation can have a profound effect on biological. The nonthermal effects of RF/MW radiation exposure are becoming important measures of biological interaction with EM fields.

DEFENSE INTELLIGENCE AGENCY - Biological Effects of Electromagnetic Radiation (Radiowaves and Microwaves) Eurasian Communist Countries (1976)Mr **** L. ****

Dr. R. A. ****

Animal experiments reported in the open literature have demonstrated the use of low-level microwave signals to produce death by heart seizure or by neurological pathologies resulting from breaching of the blood-brain barrier.

Effects of electromagnetic irradiation on the blood include biochemical variations, effects on Erythrocytes, Changes in blood coagulation, and alterations in the blood forming system. Microwaves significantly decreased the lifetime of erythrocytes.

Comparison of a group of engineers and administrative officials who were exposed to microwaves for a period of years and an unexposed control group revealed a significantly higher incidence of coronary disease, hypertension, and disturbances of lipid metabolism among the exposed Individuals. Hereditary predisposition to heart disease was approximately the same in both groups but overt disorders developed much more frequently in the previously exposed group.

Hemodynamic indices for thirty men in the 25-40 year age range who had been exposed to UHF exposures for from two to ten years were studied. These men showed a tendency to bradycardia, moderate decrease in the stroke and minute volumes, and a slowing of the rate of blood ejection from the left Ventricle.

Personnel exposed to microwave radiation below thermal levels experience more neurological, cardiovascular, and hemodynamic disturbances than do their unexposed counterparts (sinus arrhythmia).

Subjects exposed to microwave radiation exhibited a variety of neurasthenic disorders against a background of angiodystonia (abnormal changes in tonicity of the blood vessels). The most common subjective complaints were headache, fatigue, perspiring, dizziness, menstrual disorders, irritability, agitation, tension, drowsiness, sleeplessness, depression, anxiety, forgetfulness, and lack of concentration.

The magnitude and intensity of the changes tended to increase with length of exposure.

Electromagnetic radiation exposure has been found to produce disturbances in carbohydrate energy and nitrogen metabolism in the brain, liver and muscles. It appears that under electromagnetic exposure, macroergic compounds become deficient due to disjunction of the oxidative phosphorylation processes and deranged metabolism of carbohydrates.

****-term nonthermal microwave irradiation of male mice evoked diffuse changes in the testes. Subsequent mating of the animals resulted in reduction in the size of litters.

Most of the reported biological effects from radiowaves and microwaves result from exposure to the higher frequency ranges.

Clinical studies were done on thirty subjects, aged 25 to 40 years, exposed to industrial ultrahigh frequency centimetre waves ranging from 4 to 13 years. Subjective complaints included generalized weakness, afternoon and evening apathy, fatigue, headache, sleep disorders, and nonradiating precordial pain suggestive of asthenia or neurasthenia with autonomic dystonia.

Electroencephalography revealed periods of absence of alpha wave activity alternating with low R waves, increased frequency of potentials, dysrhythmia (heart beats or brain waves), periodic low peak potentials, and reactions to afferent stimuli (A touch or painful stimulus, for example, creates a sensation in the brain only after information about the stimulus travels there via afferent nerve pathways i.e. Burning sensations).

Bradycardia was present in 14 subjects.

Autonomic-vascular changes and emotional lability and reactivity were attributed to CNS changes and increased pituitary-adrenal gland function. It was also noted that such shifts to neuroendocrine function could lead to circulatory disorders manifested by changes in the hemodynamic indices and electrical activity of the heart.

A second study was done on two groups of workers occupationally exposed in the radio industry. The first group consisted of 100 subjects who had worked for several years under conditions of periodic exposure to microwaves of considerable intensity (up to several mw/cm2). The second group consisted of 115 subjects who had begun work after the introduction of protective measures and had been exposed to microwave intensity levels approximately the same as those to which the first group vas exposed. A control groupof 100 subjects not exposed to the action of microwaves was also continuously examined. The study showed adverse effects, primarily on the nervous and cardiovascular systems, in both exposed groups. These effects were more pronounced in the first group. they were manifested by more frequent complaints of asthenic syndrome and vegetative vascular dysfunction.

Analysis of the data obtained indicated that chronic exposure to the effects of low intensity high frequency radiowaves can influence the immune reactive state of the body as evidenced by differences in phagocytic activity of neutrophils, blood serum complement level, and specific antibody titres.

Soviet investigators have conducted studies on the effects of microwave frequencies in combination with ionizing radiation, magnetic fields, drugs, and nonionizing electromagnetic radiation of other wavelengths. Generally, synergistic effects have been observed.

Physiotherapy, vitamins, and stimulants are recommended for the treatment of this type of radiation sickness.
it has been suggested that studies on the surface properties and permeability of cell membranes could supply some answers.
Psychophysiological and metabolic changes and the alteration of brain function resulting from
exposure to mixed frequencies of electromagnetic radiation.

Another possibility is alteration of the permeability of the blood-brain barrier. This could allow neurotoxins in the blood to cross. As a result, an individual could develop severe neuropathological symptoms and either die or become seriously impaired neurologicallyEFFECTS OF MICROWAVES AND RADIO FREQUENCY ENERGY ON THE CENTRAL NERVOUS SYSTEM

Dr ALLAN H. FREY

The source of misunderstanding can be traced to the controversy on thermal vs non thermal effects. A very heated controversies developed between those who thought that only thermal effects could occur and those who thought non-thermal effects could also occur. This controversy involved a good bit of emotion and investigators polarized into two opposing camps. Of course, those who held the thermal position and were dominant, considered any discussion of or experimentation with neural function as a part of the non-thermal camp and thus deserving of censure. The tragedy in this is that the thermal vs non-thermal controversy is one of semantic, not science.

VLF, we have found that there is no auditory effect* even at very high field strengths, There is, however, stimulation of skin receptors. There is also an indication of the headache phenomenon again.

Initially, we illuminated isolated frog hearts with pulse modulated RF energy. The pulses were synchronized with the electrocardiogram in an attempt to induce positive feedback condition. We found that synchronizing the RF pulses with the R wave resulted in Tachycardia and frequent Arrhythmia and cessation of the heart.

We find a Tachycardia effect when synchronize with the T wave but the effect is greater when we hit the heart at the R wave.

First, let us ignore the thermal vs non-thermal controversy. If it would be in my power, I would banish the words thermal and non-thermal from this area of research. We have had enough of semantic confusion. If one feels a real need to use the word thermal, then when the inevitable argument starts, his opponent is obligated to provide a definition.

I noticed that headaches appeared to be induced at some frequencies at low power levels.
----------------------------------

Dr **** found something interesting. He showed that weak radio frequency signals—just like those from today’s cell phones—opened up this normally closed barrier. **** first injected the dye into the bloodstream of rats and then exposed them to very weak pulsed microwave signals. Within a few minutes, the injected rats’ brains began to fluoresce, signalling that the blood-brain barrier had been breached. ****’s studies were reported in the Annals of the New **** Academy of Sciences in 1975.

**** himself recalls the falsity of some critiques. One group claimed to have repeated his team’s rat studies and said they found nothing. However, instead of injecting the dye into the femoral vein so it would go directly to the heart and into the brain in seconds, as **** had, they injected it into the abdomen. They sprayed it onto the intestines. Within five minutes they killed the animals and looked at the brain. They reported that they found no evidence that the dye had gone into the brain. Of course not! There have been many studies confirming and extending ****’s work since then. Some examples of phone usage by human subjects1. It has been noted that by using the mobile phone in the transmit mode, the side of the head closest to the phone heats up and at different periods of time persistent migraines appear.

2. I have noticed persistent strong headaches for a period of 4 days; worsening after using the mobile phone for extended periods of time (approx. 10-15 minutes, 4-5 times a day). These headaches have been occurring on the left side of my head, adjacent to phone and aerial.

3. I’ve also noticed migraines to the side of the head which sort of goes away on the weekend, when we don’t use the mobile phone. But it persists during the weeks since we had the phones.

in 2003, TNO Physics and Electronics Laboratory in the Netherlands published the results of a study commissioned by three Dutch ministries. In double-blind experiments, in sessions lasting 35 minutes, human volunteers were exposed to radiation mimicking common residential exposure to third generation(UMTS) cell towers. Exposed subjects frequently reported one or more of the following:

dizziness and nausea, shortness of breath, numbness and tingling, inability to concentrate, irritability, nervousness, headaches, fatigue, weakness, muscle pains, heart palpitations and chest pain.

The result of the study, ”wrote the authors, is “That a statistically significant relation was found between the presence of radiofrequency fields resembling UMTS base station signals and the experience of wellbeing by the subjects.”The researchers thus confirmed, under laboratory conditions, the existence of a microwave syndrome that at least 23 teams of scientists in 16 countries have reported to be wide spread in the vicinity of cell towers, and among users of cell phones. The study can be found here http://www.salzburg.gv.at/tno-fel_report_03148_definitief.pdf Some noteworthy comments from study include “As elucidated in Chapter 16 of our study protocol [26], we have calculated that with a total sample size of 72 subjects we obtain a power of 80% to find statistically significant results regarding reported complaints between the periods with exposure and without exposure.” “Finally, it is noted that the constant presence of the base-station antennas during the measurements might invite the subjects to malinger the results. If that is the case, the design of the proposed study will lead to the conclusion that no relationship between electromagnetic field and the subjective complaints from this electromagnetic stimulus are found.”From our research it is concluded that our hypotheses to find no causal relation between the presence of RF-fields and the measured parameters is rejected. We have found a statistically significant relation between UMTS-like fields with a field strength of 1 V/m and the Well Being. **** group A and group B show similar effects in the well-being results. It is noted that the World Health Organization (WHO) the definition of health reads as “a state of complete physical, mental and social well being and not merely the absence of disease or infirmity”. Within this WHO definition the perceived Well Being is part of health.

The effects of the radiation can produce a wide range of physical symptoms. Some symptoms may take years to show up. Some of the effects can be short-term while other effects can be long-term orpermanent. http://medind.nic.in/daa/t08/i1/daat08i1p52.pdf

Scandinavian Study - http://www.salzburg.gv.at/Proceedings_%2817%29_Sandstroem.pdf

During 1995 in Sweden and Norway many people with symptoms experienced while using mobile phones (MP) contacted manufacturers, net operators and researchers working with electromagnetic fields. The symptoms reported were, for example headaches, feeling of discomfort, warmth be-hind/around or on the ear, and difficulties concentrating but sometimes also a stinging sensation and a feeling of heat in the facial skin.

Statistically significant association between calling time/number of calls per day and the prevalence of warmth behind/around or on the ear, headaches and fatigue was found in the two countries.

Australian Study

Hocking (1998) interviewed 40 persons with symptoms they associated with their use of MPs. He reports similar symptoms as described by Hansson Mild et al (1998). Thirty-five of the 40 reported cranial symptoms and the most common site was the temple area, ear and occipital area. The majority felt the sensation less than 5 min after starting the call, but many felt the sensation build up as the day progressed. For almost half of them the sensation lasted more than an hour.

[image: ]

“Several independent laboratories have observed this non-linear calcium-ion activity phenomenon in nervous system specimens and other tissues. The phenomenon is not due to thermal loading from exposure to EMF. However, these results have not been properly evaluated nor utilized by many organizations currently attempting to set exposure standards to protect public health.”The dismissal of this extensive body of coordinated experimental and theoretical work by most current standards setting committees needs to be re-evaluated.

The data presented here on EMF-induced changes in calcium ion activity and coordinated biological studies underscores the value of shifting from the historical engineering-based approach to a biologically-based public health reference frame.” Alterations in Calcium Ion Activity Caused by ELF and RF Electromagnetic Fields Dr. **** F. BlackmanTingling or pricking sensation due to nerve stimulation is a known consequence of electrical current flow.

Examples stories of people who are EHS

“I am finding I am struggling with driving as I approach big mobile phone towers. I am reacting to the signals with light headedness and dizziness, and heart palpitations, which isn't a great state of affairs for driving. This now means I can't drive on freeways or fast multilane roads. This has been the case for a few years but I have only worked out why it's happening recently, when I got my EMR meter and took it for a drive. I was reacting in the run up to the towers and as I drove away felt immediate relief.” Victorian MotherPrior to the installation of a smart meter into **** deBac’s home in 2012, she was “healthy and exuberant” but soon became “exhausted and tearfully anxious as she struggled with rashes and a chronically racing heart.” One of her dogs died of cancer six months after the smart meter was installed and her second dog soon developed large tumours.

“I’ve never been so sick in my life,” she says. “Nausea, a crushing migraine headache, and painful heart palpitations laid me low right away.”Dr. Belpomme in **** has developed a diagnostic method based on blood tests and a special brain scan (pulsed Doppler echography) to visualize blood flow. “These patients clearly have vascular disorders in the brain, said the oncologist. "In addition, our biological tests show that 30% of them have high levels of histamine, 50% have too much stress proteins, most have low levels of melatonin (an potent anti-cancer hormone), and 30% have levels of antibodies and proteins that are signs showing thermal shock and brain damage.” He adds that half of his patients suffer from Multiple Chemical Sensitivity (MCS) and that MCS and EHS share the same brain abnormalities. “EMFs provoke major effects in the brain. The most important of these is the opening of the blood-brain barrier. This allows mercury, organochlorines and other pollutants to enter the brain, where they cause various neurodegenerative diseases. ”“We know with certainty that electromagnetic hypersensitivity is not psychosomatic."**** Frey, a pioneer in the research on the biologic effects of EMF, published this insightful letter 25 years ago.

Had governmental agencies followed his advice, it is likely that we would now fully understand the nonthermal effects of EMF on health, and governments would have adopted regulatory standards on EMF that protect the health of humans and other species.

Aetiology of EHS
Kindling Model

The kindling model is controversial and has been used previously by some researchers to describe the development of seizures and epilepsy. The kindling model could also possibly be used to describe EHS changes in sensitivity reactions as there are some common themes. The points of interests are ( I have modified the original text from Wikipedia to relate to EHS):

· The word kindling is a metaphor: the increase in response to small stimuli is similar to the way small burning twigs can produce a large fire.

· Our brains are repeatedly stimulated by electrical fields that can induce effects

· The effects that occur after the first such stimulation lasts a short time and is accompanied by a small amount of behavioural effects compared with effects that result from repeated stimulations · With further stimulation, the effects and accompanying behaviour effects intensifies

· Threshold for symptoms to develop becomes lower with each exposure

· Symptoms become more pronounced and last longer with each exposure. Additional symptoms can develop with additional exposures especially if the duration is greater than 30 minutes.

Of course the Kindling Model does not explain how people became EHS in the first place but is more of a description of effects when EHS is first experienced and how it further develops with continued exposure. With epilepsy, the model suggests that the effects reach a plateau and that even when there is a long period of time between stimulation, the response to a subsequent stimulation remains higher than before. For EHS this is likely to be true for period of time however it has been suggested by some that EHS goes through defined stages. I can certainly associate my progression with Stage 1 and 2 (overleaf). I am doing my best to minimise my exposure but work requirements and the rapid increase in the deployment of wireless devices into the environment is making stage 3 likely to be inevitable. I have had blood tests, Pyrrole tests (urine), Melatonin test, hair analysis performed. There appears to be some markers that are changing quite significantly over time.

Stages of EHS

Stage 1 is representative of initial sensitivity – when the person first develops symptoms - usually linked to the exposure to a newly acquired device that emits a signal that has never been experienced before. Stage 1 will go through a kindling model like progression. Symptoms abate (full recovery) when the source signal is removed/turned off. Subsequent exposures result in more pronounced symptoms and the recovery period extends longer each time after the signal is stopped. Medical tests are likely to show biological indicators in the normal range (normal is subjective and quite large).

Stage 2 is controversial but if the person is able to remove themselves from the source of their symptoms their sensitivity will become moderated. Whether this is a case where the bodies compensation mechanisms have kicked in and are offering some protection or whether cellular repair mechanisms are beginning to cope because a toxicant has been removed is not fully understood. Behavioural modification also has a part to play as the sufferer has become aware of what causes them to develop symptoms and so tries to avoid or minimise exposure.

Stage 3 If the person is unable to remove themselves from the source of their symptoms there health will begin to progressively decline. Sensitivity can change to include a larger range of signals that previously may not have bothered them. Biological changes can be observed with blood tests such as a decline in some bio markers such as RBC’s, Platelet count, serotonin etc. Increases in Bilirubin, Pyrroles, and Glucose. Also heart irregularities can be picked up on 24 hour ECG tests.

[bookmark: _GoBack]Major Issues and Concerns
Majority of the medical profession are completely unaware of EHS, have no formal training to recognise and treat sufferers

No tools available to identify genuine sufferers from those who may be suffering from another ailment (psychological or physiological) Scientists investigating this issue do not always have suitable qualifications. Multiple branches of science are required to work together (Biological, Medical, Physics, Electrical Engineering and Psychology are needed).

Many Researchers are looking at this idiopathic environment sensitivity from the wrong perspective – It should not be about whether we can perceive a signal but whether there is a detectable somatic response which can happen immediately or can be delayed.

Some of the cardiac and circulatory effects attributed to exposure include bradycardia, hypotension, and changes in EKG indices
I have recently been diagnosed with bradycardia yet I am not an athlete.
EHS History http://www.science20.com/florilegium/what_are_symptoms_electromagnetic_hypersensitivity

First cases of Electromagnetic Hypersensitivity (often referred to as electro-hypersensitivity or even EHS) were studied in the 1970s and yet decades later few people are even aware of the condition.

It is worth noting that there is usually one trigger event that then sets off a general reaction to further sources of electromagnetic frequencies (EMF)If non ionising radiation is having a biological effect strong enough to result in such external symptoms, then we should be able to observe the underlying biological damage/changes.

Exposure to pulse modulated RF radiation, at a SAR values lower than levels where thermal effects may occur have been shown repeatedly to affect both gene expression and cell regulatory functions.

RESEARCH (in support of above claims)
Neurological effects of radiofrequency radiation Hocking B., Westerman R. 2003

Cases have arisen after exposure to much of the radiofrequency range. In some cases, symptoms are transitory but lasting in others. After very high exposures, nerves may be grossly injured. After lower exposures, which may result in dysaesthesia, ordinary nerve conduction studies find no abnormality but current perception threshold studies have found abnormalities. Only a small proportion of similarly exposed people develop symptoms. The role of modulations needs clarification. Some of these observations are not consistent with the prevailing hypothesis that all health effects of RFR arise from thermal mechanisms.

Microwave sickness: a reappraisal Hocking B. 2000

In 1997, **** [8] provided a detailed report of effects of overexposure in three engineers working on 785 MHz television in the UK. They were exposed to fields >>20 mW/cm 2 for 1–3 min. Subsequently, they have experienced headaches, dysaesthesia, lassitude and loss of stamina for up to 3 years. They had previously been fit with no history of mental or other ill-health. This report, by an experienced occupational physician, is most pertinent to the MWS debate. The fact that the symptoms arose after an overexposure should not obscure the fact that after this they suffered long-term subjective effects, including headaches, lassitude and general malaise. This gives strong support to the view that RFR can cause the symptoms of MWS. **** [9] has reported further similar cases involving overexposure to FM VHF.

Effect of Electromagnetic **** on Red **** Cells of Adult Male Swiss albino Mice
**** H. et al. 2013

Most of studies carried out on mice, rat and human showed that electromagnetic fields induced changes in hematological parameters in these organisms. Several studies have reported reduction in body weight of animals exposed to electromagnetic field. It was observed that the exposed mice showed irritating behaviour, aggressiveness and hyperactivity.

Total red blood cell count and hemoglobin content of exposed mice (GII) has been observed to decrease as compared to normal mice. The red blood smear of the exposed group (GII) showed that, the RBCs have distorted shape and stake next to each other to form rouleaux. The red blood cells have increased ability to stick together due to increased viscosity of blood as a result of exposure to electromagnetic field.

Hemolysis of red blood cells were also observed as the period of exposure increased EMR alters the cell membrane potential and distribution of ionsEffect of Radiofrequency Electromagnetic **** Exposure on Hematological Parameters of Mice Usman A.D. et al. 2012

Observation of individual and collective behaviour of the mice shows some manifestation in the form of aggressiveness and hyperactivity when exposed to 900Mhz or 1800Mhz radiation. In contrast, these signs were not so apparent in the mice in sham exposed group.

The mice in the exposed groups expressed visible individual panic reaction, disorientation and greater degree of anxiety. In sham exposed group, these deviations of behaviour were not registered.

Although the haematological values were within the normal range for rats, the differences observed between the exposed groups and the sham exposed group were found to be significant.

Dose-Dependent ATP Depletion and Cancer Cell Death following Calcium Electroporation, Relative Effect of Calcium concentration and Electric **** Strength. **** EL et al. 2015Electroporation, a method for increasing the permeability of membranes to ions and small molecules, is used in the clinic with chemotherapeutic drugs for cancer treatment (electrochemotherapy). Electroporation with calcium causes ATP (adenosine triphosphate) depletion and cancer cell death.

calcium concentration and electric field decrease in intracellular ATP (p<0.05) and reduced cell viability.

Toxicological study of electromagnetic radiation emitted by television and video display screens and cellular telephones on chickens and mice Bastide et al. 2001Bastide et al. reported from their study of mice exposed to GSM radiation and there was 50% decrease in immunoglobulin levels

Mobile phone radiation affects biophysical blood properties in rats El-Bediwi AB et al. 2013

The microwave radiation was produced by a mobile test phone (model NOKIA 3110; Nokia Mobile Phones Ltd.). A 900 MHz electromagnetic near-field signal for GSM (Global System for Mobile communication at 900 MHz, continuous wave, analog phone) system was used.

Conclusion

1. **** components of rats have significant effects after exposure to mobile phone electromagnetic radiation such as decreasing values of RBCs, WBCs, Platelets, and Haemoglobin molecules.

2. **** viscosity and plasma viscosity values are decreased after exposure to mobile phone electromagnetic radiation.
3. Haemoglobin structure is affected due to exposure to mobile phone electromagnetic radiation.
Time course of the interaction of low level 2.45 GHz radiation with the erythrocyte membrane. Savopol T et al. 1996

At low power densities (0.8 and 1.36 mW/cm²), there is a quasi-linear increase in the degree of haemolysis with increasing time of exposure; at higher densities (5 mW/cm²), this tendency seems to be reversed after the first 10 h of exposure.

RF research should cuts across many disciplines of engineering, physics, biology and medicine.
MICROWAVE EFFECT OF 0.9GHZ AND 1.8GHZ CW FREQUENCIES EXPOSED TO UNRESTRAINED SWISS ALBINO MICE Usman A.D. et al. 2012

The organs of the sham exposed group were found to be normal throughout the period of exposure. The exposed groups histopathology examinations of the 5 organs were also normal within the first 8 weeks of exposure.

However, three signs begin to emanate after week 8 of exposure in both 0.9GHz and 1.8GHz RF exposed groups. The signs were that of cell degeneration, inflammation and abscessation of lung, liver and brain.

Medical aspects of overexposures to electromagnetic fields Dr **** Hocking 2011

Dr Hocking claims “The paper relates only to acute health effects and does not discuss cancer or other long-term effects, nor does it include ‘‘electrical hypersensitivity’’ which is associated with exposure to very low-level fields.

However looking at the symptoms claimed some of them actually match what EHS sufferers are experiencing particularly those that revolve around the central nervous system:

· Effects on the CNS may include headaches and lethargy and cognitive effects such as decreased concentration.
· Effects on the peripheral nervous system include dysasthesiae (pins and needles).
· Psychological effects such as PTSD may also occur, and be difficult to distinguish from direct effects on the CNS.

· The autonomic nervous system may be affected; Foreman reported raised blood pressure in their patients five months after an overexposure.

· It may cause arrhythmias which may be life threatening.

Variations of Melatonin and Stress Hormones under Extended Shifts and Radiofrequency Electromagnetic Radiation Katia Koicheva Vangelova and Mishel **** Israel 2005A significant EMR exposure-effect relation for stress hormones was found. The changes in the stress system under high-level exposure cannot be attributed to confounding factors because these were controlled. The working conditions, work content, work control, and psychosocial support showed no significant differences among the groups. No acute incidents or changes in the task requirements among the groups during the period of the study were registered. The participants were unaware of the level of the exposure during the study. The long-term effect of the increased secretion of stress hormones or changes in their circadian rhythms is associated with functional disorders and has implications for health. The effects of the catechol-amines on cardiovascular function are well known. Excessive and sustained cortisol secretion has been long associated with depression, osteoporosis, immunosuppression, and the entire spectrum of metabolic syndromesAlthough neither low- nor high-level radiofrequency EMR had an effect of on aMT6s (Melatonin), both showed an exposure-effect relation for the stress hormones adrenaline and noradrenaline. As outlined above, the chronic elevation of stress hormones may be associated with adverse health consequences. Further, the effects of occupational radiofrequency EMR exposures on the stress system must be better defined and the accompanying health hazards be clarified.

Effects of Electromagnetic Radiation produced by Mobile Phone on Some Visceral Organs of Rat. (2011) El-Bediwi et al.

One of the most important features of pathological changes of liver cells is the change of the level of liver Albumin, total bilirubin ALT and AST.

The extent of liver changes has been shown to depend on the duration of the exposure to the phone radiation. Repeated exposure to EMR emitted from mobile phones is able to induce hepatic tissue damage. The degree of damage increased with duration of exposure. Can be considered as a sign of metabolic alterations under the influence of EMR.

Radiofrequency electromagnetic field exposure effects on antioxidant enzymes and liver function tests Kumari K et al. 2012

900Mhz exposure (exposure duration: intermittent for 2 hours/day for 35 days) and 2.45Ghz exposure (exposure duration: continuous for 2 hours/day for 35 days) showed significantly decreased enzyme activities of the glutathione peroxidase and the superoxide dismutase when compared to the control, while the enzyme activity of the catalase and the lipid peroxidation were significantly increased.

Additionally, all liver values (includes Bilirubin) in the serum of exposed rats (microwave or mobile phone) were significantly increased in comparison to the control group.

Oxidative stress and apoptosis in relation to exposure to magnetic field. Emre M. et al 2011
Exposure also increases AST and ALT, reductions in Albumin

Biochemical studies show a considerable disruption in the metabolism of carbohydrates, lipids and proteins as reflected by altered blood glucose levels as well as accelerated glycolysis and glycogenolysis, EMF exposure leads to oxidative stress leading to DNA damage and lipid peroxidation.

The microwave syndrome: a preliminary study in Spain **** et al. 2003.

a health survey in the vicinity of a cellular phone base station, working in DCS-1800 MHz frequency range with exposition time greater than 6 hours/day, 7 days/week, in 95% of the subjects. Exposure assessment was done by measuring microwave power densities at residence of respondents. Statistical analysis revealed a significant correlation between the declared severity of symptoms and measured power density. The study also showed an increase in the declared severity in groups with higher exposures.

Changes of Clinically Important Neurotransmitters under the Influence of Modulated RF Fields—A **** term Study under ****-life Conditions. **** and Eger 2011Original study in ****:

After the activation of the GSM base station, the levels of the stress hormones adrenaline and noradrenaline increased significantly in human subjects during the first six months; the levels of the precursor dopamine decreased substantially. As an indicator of the dysregulated chronic imbalance of the stress system, the phenylethylamine (PEA) levels dropped significantly until the end of the study period. [Abnormally low concentrations of endogenous PEA are found in those with attention-deficit hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) or clinical depression. Abnormally high concentrations are positively correlated with schizophrenia.] The effects showed a dose-response relationship and occurred well below current limits for technical RF radiation exposures. Chronic dysregulation of the catecholamine system has great relevance for health and is well known to damage human health in the long run.

Effects of exposure to base station signals on salivary cortisol, alpha-amylase and immunoglobulin A. Augner et al. 2010

This was a human experimental study with exposure to PM MW radiation wherein immune indicators were monitored after five 50-minute sessions. The researchers found dose-dependent changes in cortisol and alpha-amylase.

Salivary alpha-amylase and cortisol are biomarkers for stress. As a part of the body’s fight-or-flight response, cortisol also acts to suppress the body’s immune systemVariations of Melatonin and Stress Hormones under Extended Shifts and Radiofrequency Electromagnetic Radiation Vangelova et al. 2005.

A significant EMR exposure-effect relation for stress hormones was found. Our data show higher 24-h cortisol, adrenaline, and noradrenaline excretion with higher radio- frequency EMR exposure (Table 4), with a significantly higher cortisol and noradrenaline 24-h excretion in high-level exposure operators than in the control group (F = 5.561, p = 0.023 and F = 4.773, p = 0.041 for cortisol and noradrenaline respectively).

Physiological and Biochemical Changes Associated With Mobile Phone Base Stations Gabr S. A. et al. 2008

The expansion of mobile communications contributes to the general debate on the possible adverse effects on human health as indicated by changes in electroencephalograph (EEG). Other symptoms of ill health ascribed to electromagnetic radiation include sleep disorders, headache, nervousness, fatigue and concentration difficulties.

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Cortisol is a hormone that is associated with psychologic and physical stress, inflammation and sleep dysfunction in human. In the present study cortisol levels were significantly increased (P<0.5, <0.001) in males and in females respectively at a distance zone <10 m of station. Our results are in agreement with Vangelova and **** who reported that radiofrequency electromagnetic radiation exposure significantly increased the excretion rates of cortisol, adrenaline and noradrenaline.

Scientific evidence contradicts findings and assumptions of Canadian Safety Panel 6: microwaves act through voltage-gated calcium channel activation to induce biological impacts at non-thermal levels, supporting a paradigm shift for microwave/lower frequency electromagnetic field action.

Pall M. 2015

Microwave/lower frequency EMFs were shown in two dozen studies to act via VGCC activation because all effects studied were blocked by calcium channel blockers.

Downstream effects explain repeatedly reported biological responses to non-thermal exposures: oxidative stress; single and double strand breaks in cellular DNA; cancer; male and female infertility; lowered melatonin/sleep disruption; cardiac changes including tachycardia, arrhythmia, and sudden cardiac death; diverse neuropsychiatric effects including depression; and therapeutic effects.

The biophysical properties of VGCCs/similar channels make them particularly sensitive to low intensity, non-thermal EMF exposures. Non-thermal studies have shown that in most cases pulsed fields are more active than are non-pulsed fields and that exposures within certain intensity windows have much large biological effects than do either lower or higher intensity exposures; these are both consistent with a VGCC role but inconsistent with only a heating/thermal role. Downstream effects of VGCC activation include calcium signalling, elevated nitric oxide (NO), NO signalling, peroxynitrite, free radical formation, and oxidative stress. http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/25879308?dopt=Abstract Closing remarks

The suffering people who are EHS experience is aggravated further, when the majority of population do not appear to experience symptoms with EMF exposures and so some scientists suggest it is all in their heads. The increasing number of reports on EHS however warns us to take this research promptly and locate the biomarkers that could give some clue in ameliorating the problems of such individuals. More investigations are hence needed to completely delineate the pathophysiology of EHS along with the generation of clear diagnostic criteria to identify the problem and develop strategies to limit the suffering of afflicted individuals. For the time being, individuals with EHS need to be supported by the family, society, and the government to lead a normal and respectable life.

Exposure concomitantly to other agents could make people more vulnerable to NIR exposure.
We have seen evidence of EMR acting as a co-carcinogen.
We see experiments that show the sum of damage greater when exposed to an agent and EMR than the effects of each alone.
Urgent action is required as there is a lot at stake.

“An activist is someone who cannot help but fight for something. That person is not usually motivated by a need for power, or money, or fame, but in fact driven slightly mad by some injustice, some cruelty, some unfairness - So much so that he or she is compelled by some moral engine to act to make it better.”- Eve EnslerEHS Studies

There are claims that that there are no studies showing people can accurately perceive whether a device is on or not. This is not fully correct as there are a number of studies that have shown there are some people who have correlated EMR exposure to their symptoms with a high level of accuracy. Nieto-Hernandez R et al, (November 2008) Rea W. et al, (1991). However, perception of a signal should not form the principle basis for validating or disqualifying EHS is linked to EMR exposure as I will explain further in this study.

For some people, EHS is potentially disabling and so the non-consensual deployment of smart meters, smart grids, mobile phone base stations, Bluetooth in cars, WiFi in work and public places is introducing a multitude of issues that relate to health, accessibility and discrimination.

Headaches, dizziness, pins and needles and other sensations e.g. dysesthesia/paresthesia are the more commonly claimed effects.

The medical profession lack the tools and the methodology to diagnose and treat sufferers effectively. The chance for misdiagnosis and prescription of ineffective and inappropriate medications is high especially as the focus of treatment typically revolves around dealing with the symptoms and not the underlying cause.

The WHO definition of EHS could be seen as confusing because they recognise the EHS nonspecific symptomology and that it is potentially disabling but then claim it is not a medical diagnosis, indicate that there is no convincing evidence that links the condition to EMR and offers no advice on how to deal with it sensibly. This incomplete advice unfortunately leaves those who suffer in limbo without any formal recognitions or support (with the exception of Sweden where it is recognised formally as a health impairment).

84 Studies were reviewed which resulted in the following high level findings:
· 42 studies were survey or review type studies with no actual biological or provocation test data
· 42 studies included biological and/or provocation tests
· 14 of the 21 neutral studies were survey or review type studies. No biological or provocation tests were conducted.
· 11 of the 25 negative studies were survey or review type studies. No biological or provocation tests were conducted.
· 17 of the 39 positive studies were survey or review type studies. No biological or provocation tests were conducted.
· 18 Biological and/or provocation studies showed a correlation between EMR and EHS symptoms.
· 21 Biological and/or provocation studies showed no link (14) or were inconclusive (7).

Many of the studies reviewed neither validates EHS is related to EMF or disputes this. Some studies suggests that there are psychological issues but do not determine whether this developed after a person became EHS or is the cause of EHS.

Many of the negative studies are poorly executed and hint at psychological reasons without providing any compelling evidence to support their claim. Cognitive behavioural therapy (CBT) is put forward as a potential solution but not all researchers agree. “Even comparing those patients who did reconsider their attributions against those who did not failed to identify any significant differences in symptom severity or perceived sensitivity. A similar phenomenon has been observed before in trials of CBT for patients suffering from chronic fatigue syndrome.” **** Nieto-Hernandez et al. (2008)Some studies provide clear evidence of an association between distance from an antenna and symptom prevalence that would not be expected if EMR was not the cause.

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In 2010, a review found that 8 of the 10 studies evaluated from PubMed had reported increased prevalence of adverse neurobehavioral symptoms or cancer in populations living at distances <500 m from Base Stations. Khurana VG et al.,(July 2010)10 out of 14 peer-reviewed studies both found significant increases in the symptoms being analysed, and conformed to the specified WHO / ICNIRP standards of scientific quality, including their assessment criteria of consistency and replication. Kundi 2008One needs to take care when interpreting the above information as not all tests are equal and several studies in all categories (positive, negative and neutral) have fundamental issues that are based on a flawed understanding of EHS characteristics.

Psychological aspects and EHS – the cause or the outcome?

It would appear that a psychological causation is being suggested by a number of researchers to deal with symptoms that cannot be fully explained by current knowledge and understanding.

A potential question that might not be asked in many of these survey studies is whether the subjects were anxious or worried about the technology prior to using it or whether they developed concerns after they experienced the symptoms the first time. It is important to identify the source of concern and when the concern developed. Questions and studies that that need consideration by scientists is whether concerns over completely unrelated factors in those who are considered health (not suffering EHS) lead to the development of similar nonspecific symptoms.

Functional neurologic or psycho-pathologic clinical symptoms such as cognitive impairment, depression, emotivism are prominent in those who are EHS and are often misleading physicians and scientists towards a psychiatric causation.

Many negative studies try to associate risk perception (worry and concern) to symptom development (nocebo affect) but a number of studies suggest that the prevalence of health complaints for sensitive people cannot be fully explained by attributions, concerns or risk perceptions. Gómez-Perretta C. et al., (December 2013), Blettner M et al, (November 2008), Bortkiewicz A et al, (2004) and Levallois P et al, (August 2002).

Testing Protocol Deficiencies

A large number of provocation test studies look to see if the test subject can accurately perceive RF emissions and if they don’t, assume that the subjective symptoms claimed are not linked to the signal. Signal perception is irrelevant when comes to trying to determine whether EMR is causing somatic symptoms leading to health impairment. The focus should not be based on perceptions but rather whether the signal induces the symptoms which can occur almost immediately, hours or a day later. The recovery period needs to be considered, can be of varying durations and should be recorded. A test subjects reactions will also depend on signal strength, frequency emitted, modulation pattern and whether the signal is carrying data or not. Symptoms that arise from exposure need to be tracked from the time they commence to when they resolve themselves, after exposure is discontinued.

Many survey based studies are not designed to establish a causal association between exposure to EMF and symptoms of ill health because they do not investigate the mechanism by which symptoms develop. They simply categorise the main symptoms and show their prevalence as a %.

· Sleep disorders (43%) and headaches (34%) Schreier N et al, (2006)

· Sleep disorders (58%), headaches (41%), nervousness or distress (19%), fatigue (18%), and concentration difficulties (16%) Roosli M et al, (February 2004) · Sleep disturbance (23.5%), headache (23.5%), memory changes (28.2%), dizziness (18.8%), tremors (9.4%) and depressive symptoms (21.7%) Abdel-Rassoul G et al, (March 2007)· 70% complained of headache and 20% of dizziness. Szyjkowska A et al, (October 2005)

In one study it was found that 32% of EHS cases there was a plausible relationship between EMF exposure and reported symptoms (Huss et al., 2005). This means that 68% of those who claim to be electromagnetic hypersensitive could, in fact, suffer from other conditions or even have a psychological condition that is responsible for their symptoms. With this in mind, it is should not come as a surprise why some provocation studies with self-reported electromagnetic hypersensitive individuals could not find any association between symptoms and exposure. What is needed is a method to measure “genuine” EHS in order to differentiate this kind of hypersensitivity from other kinds of conditions” A. Tuengler et al. 2013Many of the test protocols do not give clear indications of what confounders have been considered. We have no idea whether the sensitive subjects are effected already by other sources prior to the test which can include:

1) Travelling from home to the research facility, test subject may be exposed to a variety of RF sources that they may be sensitive to along the way2) Research facilities are not always controlled to eliminate EMR sources using shielding. If the test environment contaminated by other external EMR sources test results will be compromised.

3) Lighting, wiring, power points and even the test device may be emitting EMF (even in sham mode – if it is powered on but not transmitting RF)4) Delayed onset or recovery from symptoms from a previous test or other exposures

It should not be about whether we can detect a signal but rather do we experience biological effects immediately, hours or a day later. What are those effects being claimed and how consistent are they being claimed? How are confounders being handled such as exposure to external environment EMF/RF triggers? Are they kept in rooms with shielding throughout the whole test period? How long is the testing period and is adequate recovery time being provided before the next test irrespective of whether it is the sham signal or not? What signals are being used and do people claim to be sensitive to them? Do the signals simulate data transmission or simply the carrier wave or beacon signal? What psychological assessments have been performed to back claims that EHS is psychosomatic? How do the researchers determine whether identified psychological attributes are the cause of the symptoms or the result of experiencing the symptoms repeatedly for months or even years?

Cellular stress response – a critical component that is not considered in many study designs

Cells attempt to adapt to alterations in their intra- and extracellular environment via organised alterations to gene and protein expression. Whether cells mount a protective or destructive stress response depends to a large extent on the nature and duration of the stress as well as the cell type. A large number of studies have suggested that radiofrequencies cause cellular stress and oxidative stress which can drive the aforementioned changes and so can have potentially detrimental effects to human health including cancer.

Cell survival requires appropriate proportions of molecular oxygen and various antioxidants. Reactive products of oxygen (ROS) are recognised as one of the most potent threats faced by cells. ROS can cause damage to all of the major classes of biological macromolecules, including nucleic acids, proteins, carbohydrates, and lipids. In extreme cases when the cell’s antioxidant defences are overwhelmed, ROS can induce cell death.

There are many defences at the cells disposal to deal with cellular stress but when subject to stress or stresses that are too strong and too persistent, they can lead to disease.3Responses to cellular stress ramp up with exposure and can take many hours to return to normal. Depending on the severity and duration of stress encountered, cells either re-establish cellular homeostasis to the former state or adopt an altered state in the new environment.

Stressors can trigger two types of cellular responses, from within cells and by the immune system. 5
Disconnect between the medical profession and international scientific bodies

In one study, general practitioners (GPs) judged the association between EMF and the symptoms to be plausible in 54% of the cases. GPs often judged the association between the health problems and the suspected exposure to be plausible which is in conflict with mainstream science and health organisations opinions. “An overwhelming percentage of general practitioners (up to 96%) to some degree, or totally, believe in a health-relevant role of environmental electromagnetic” Huss A, Roosli M, (October 2006). This could be used as evidence to suggest that perhaps scientists who do not have a background in appropriate medical sciences are also the ones who are making these international scientific consensus conclusions or worse, they are simply ignoring medical evidence.

There is uncertainty about the trigger event(s) and the underlying biological mechanisms that lead to symptoms. This uncertainty has hampered the development of a clinical basis for the diagnosis and treatment of those who are EHS. This is further challenged by significant gaps in understanding within both the scientific and medical communities of EHS and the causesIt is clear scientific uncertainty needs to be addressed as a priority and transparently. To do this we need a dramatic change in the way tests are conducted to focus on health effects rather than signal perception. We need more independently conducted studies to be performed by researchers from a medical and/or biological sciences background rather than psychology, physics or electrical engineering. Better still, studies should be conducted with representatives of all the aforementioned disciplines.

Even though several EHS symptoms cannot be directly implicated as being a health problem (i.e. prickling feelings) “Annoyance or discomfort may not be pathological per se but, if substantiated, can affect the physical and mental well being of a person and the resultant effect should be considered as a potential health hazard” ICNIRP Statement 2002Researchers need to recognise that people have different capacities to deal with environmental and emotional stress. **** physiological and psychological parameters may play an important role in determining how people react to their environment and changing health. Of course current state of health, genetic variability and EMR exposure levels a person has been subject to all have an important role to play and need to be considered in any future studies. The fact that damage caused by man made non ionising radiation maybe accumulative it may not require a single over exposure event to result in real health problems.

Finally, it is important to understand that science based evidence is obviously limited to the current understandings held by scientists and the capability of our tools to measure and detect physiological changes. Science based evidence should not be the sole mechanism to validate EHS, it also needs to take into consideration medical evidence which suggests1. EHS sufferers who remove or minimise their exposure to certain triggering EMF fields/devices see a cessation of their symptoms2. Military personal who are exposed more to a variety of EMF’s show a higher instance of non-specific subjective symptoms associated with EHS than the less exposed public.2 Appendix A **** Studies - Symptoms claimed by sufferers after exposure to smart meter radiation

New or Worsened Symptoms Reported by 318 Individuals after Exposure to Wireless Utility Meters in the USA1

[image: cid:image002.jpg@01D06EE8.664B18D0] 1 Ed Halteman, Ph.D., statistics, Final Results Summary: Wireless Utility **** Safety Impacts Survey, **** 13, 2011, p. 22 ( http://emfsafetynetwork.org/wp-content/uploads/2011/09/Wireless-Utility-Meter-Safety-Impacts-Survey-Results-Final.pdf). 97 percent of respondents to full survey were in the USA, from 28 states with most in California (78 percent) and New **** (16 percent).

New or Worsened Symptoms Reported by 92 Individuals after Exposure to Wireless **** Meters in Australia1
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1 Federica Lamech, MBBS, Self-Reporting of Symptom Development from Exposure to Radiofrequency Fields of Wireless **** Meters in ****, Australia: A **** Series. Alternative Therapies, Nov/Dec 2014, Vol. 20, No. 6, pages 28-38. NIH PMID 25478801 (http://www.alternative-therapies.com and http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/25478801).

Appendix B Heat Shock Proteins: Markers of Cellular Stress or More?[image: http://link.springer.com/article/10.1007%2F978-3-642-85068-4_3/lookinside/001.png]RESEARCHER NUMBER OF FREQUENCV 0R FIELD STRENGTH] EFFECTS

SUBJECTS BAND POWER DENSITY
Sadicikova 1180 30-3,000 uw/cm2
Fatigue, irritabflity, sleepiness,
memory loss, bradycardia, hypertension,
hypotensian, cardiac pain, systolic
murmur, "microwave sickness”
RESEARCHER NUMBER OF FREQUENCV 0R FIELD STRENGTH/ EFFECTS
SUBJECTS BAND PDHER DENSITY
**** 494 60 Hz Crib death (Sudden Infant Death
{Gemanv} Syndrome).
Rise 10 0.1-960 MHz 104640—13 Changes in electroencephawgram, loss
(United States) Wernz of memory, inability to concentrate,
irritability, apprehension.
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Ihe 0mm ellipsoidal mndel used fox “1: mac, (0) RBCs Immersed m the field mm each mhevr because 0f Ihe
flavomable mpulempole Inmate!) energy, leadmg lo the rvulmu formatmn
27111111111511
11111111111111 A 1111
Symprom Prevalance %
80
70
60
50
40
Symptoms (Category 3 - Very Often)
<10m
10 to 50m
50 to 100m 100 to 200m
Distance From Base station
200 , 300m
—Fatigue
— Irratability
Headaches
Nausea
Loss of Appetite
Sleep Disruption
Depression
Feeling of Discomfort
— Difficulty in Concentration
Memory Loss
Skin Problems
Visual Disruptions
—Hearing Disruptions
—Dizziness
—Movement Difficulties
—Cardio Vascular Problems
mpuwm
Suns. and-Iv, Imam
mum
man. u. (Mean
mum, mm, or le-nm mus-u
mm, "mule, u maul mm
nmmm, mm, a mm DIM:
an mums. Includlllflepflm mm: 1.. eyes
cam“ "mum, nun alumnus, mnmnm’ns
lummmuumrlflw
mmmwn gamma»; Dllns
mm, my. Mum
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unm mum
mm d‘mvdus. mm: mum diam
m **** mm.
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maxm ma paln. Mdul ma
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mum, "redness. bum, eat-mien. m Mala-m
cwawm, mum u: com-max: «mu dwmlmn, or men-ow w
Ahmmul set-mm, lawn have m, nut-warm man; «mum mots”
delmu
MM palm-0M
nausea
om: ammo-mm wmwmmm
ram (mum, bones, "nudes, mum mwumm mun)
Wire tum In «on ma
may/waxw-mwmwmss
humerus Mn eves mvexbmmmd mm
m nah/pain In me Man
macs/sun mum/m «Wm/w 5m.
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was»: niobium/bowel Imbinylmmam m
Musdl wms/am/xwixm
m was
brawn“: (ear m. loss nImnM‘
momma/mo! mmum
um mo! immune-ax
Alums/ma set-sums
mum-m cl mammilnak mmmmy Smmme
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m m mum/m max
wan: «mum mum“:
may. tie/M
m Irleflcnslfinhs
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Hem shriek Protein: in Cnuul illncw Markcrs of Cellular **** or Mom" 25
Tlhl: I. Mam known inducers oi mc sum response (Adapred (mm [16])
ear
Ammo aeiua l-laogl
lnlnlblrers ei clingy melahuhsm (= g arsenlrel-
ayy or rmmrnenal rnclpls ie E eadrnrumlv
Hydrogen peroxide
Phagocymsix‘
lnliamrrml lion
Rmxygenallon following hypbxla‘
lsch cmla rcpcr usn
Drugs used iur rcanecr chememerapy
(c g Ilimiruhirln, hluimyclnj'
— lnuuelien probably med-lieu by reamye oxygen weal“
1‘1!)ch The slrcss pmlcins and llrcrr rnaln inducers. lAdaplcd irern [16])
Srress prolelns **** lndueer
Hui shock plnlcill nmnscr
HSP no (I H) kn)
HSI’ 9001340 km
HSP 70 (68—73 my SM Tabla ‘
HSP o7
Luw moleeulnr werglu llsrs (mzx w)
GRP 7x er EIP (rclaled in HS? 70) {
GRP 96 “clam w HS? 9“) Glucose depriyauan. ealeiurn lonophun:
Uhlqnl n (x kD)
Meilllolliinmim
Enzymes
supernmde diamuuy: (Mn-SOD. 90 kD)
Heal, denalurecl proteins. amino acid arm
logs
Tra ansl on or lleayy melnls (cndmmm mu:
copper mercury
Reacllvc o: Imermedialcs. TNr‘. lleal lnr
heeierml
uv rnclrannn Mmln hydrogen peroxide,
cadmium‘he al md rm)
llcme oxygcnssc (32 ml
chapcmnes‘ whose |ask is lo mainuun the conformational and slrucrurnl rnleg.
rily oI imraecllular proleirrs [2]. Mesi molecular chaperenes including HSPs,
are expressed constitullvcly in unslressed eells, wirile HSP expression is indueecl
ur increased dining cellular slress. However, certain HSPs, mainly HSP 7(lkD
(Table 2), Is expressed unly In response It) cellular siress.
The precise meehanism(s) by which cells identify lire environmental changes
resullrng iroru the various siimuli (llslcd in Table 1) is npl iully underslood
There is experrmcnlal evidence showing Ihal Ihc presence **** cells nl pan
leins wilh conformalional abnormaliues can lead |o HSP synllresis [3] A most
of lire known stimuli can promoie alleralions m pmlcln eenrnrmauen, llus